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Table 19 (Contd) Exposure measurement 97 respirable hiv infection rates in canada discount aciclovir 800 mg without a prescription, 78 total dust hiv infection stories purchase aciclovir with visa, and 29 silica analyses from three of the five participating factories at the time of the study Mean respirable dust and total dust exposure 2 hiv infection causes statistics aciclovir 400mg lowest price. Exposure Findings a Study design antivirus windows purchase aciclovir 200 mg otc, studied population References Myers & Cornell (1989); Myers et al. Effects on Humans In a further questionnaire, a radiological and lung function study among 1676 workers of the largest china clay producers in Cornwall, advanced pneumoconiosis was observed in 19 workers, all employed in dusty workplaces, and pneumoconiosis category 2 or 3 was reported in 79 workers. No symptoms related to years worked in different jobs were observed (Oldham, 1983). Nodular fibrosis appeared to be related to a high quartz content of the dust recovered from the lung, whereas among those with a high content of kaolinite in the lungs, interstitial fibrosis was observed. Employment in dusty operations was accompanied by the highest risk of pneumoconiosis; however, in kilns where exposure was also high, pneumoconiosis was less frequent. As the authors propose, the likely explanation is that in the kiln department, kaolinite is no longer crystalline. Ventilatory capacity was related to the radiological status of the lungs (Ogle et al. In a further follow-up of the United Kingdom china clay workers, small opacity profusion was related to work dustiness and estimated total occupational dust dose. The major determinant of respiratory symptoms was smoking; total dust exposure had only a minor effect (Rundle et al. In a further analysis of the same workforce, univariate analysis demonstrated a relationship between lung function and age, X-ray score, smoking class, occupational history, and total occupational dust dose. In multiple regression analysis, total occupational dust dose and occupational history were not independent additional risk factors for decreased lung function (Comyns et al. All these had worked for a number of years in the loading area or some other area of the plant that in earlier years had been very dusty. Only 2 had worked in the kaolin industry less than 10 years, and 19 had been employed for more than 20 years. Thirty-one of the 44 had a stage I pneumoconiosis; they had no symptoms or signs of respiratory dysfunction. Lapenas & Gale (1983) found diffuse reticulonodular lung infiltration and a nodule in the upper lung lobe in a 35-year-old worker of a Georgia kaolin processing factory who had been occupationally exposed to kaolin aerosol for 17 years. Exploratory thoracotomy revealed an 8 Ч 12 Ч 10 cm conglomerate pneumoconiotic lesion containing large amounts of kaolinite. Quartz could not be demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy or X-ray diffraction. Respiratory failure was a contributing factor to death in two of the three autopsy cases. Chest X-ray demonstrated small irregular shadows and large obscure patches typical of kaolin pneumoconiosis. Histological examinations revealed significant kaolinite deposits and peribronchial nodules. The nodules differed from those in silicotic patients and consisted mainly of kaolinite aggregates traversed by fibrous tissue trabecules. The presence of kaolinite in the lungs was confirmed by mineralogical examinations, while quartz could not be demonstrated. Samples of respirable dust contained 96% kaolinite, 4% titanium dioxide, and no silica. Pneumoconiosis was found in 15% of the workers and ex-workers with 5 years or more of exposure. At the time of the study, the airborne concentrations of kaolin dust were below 5 mg/m3 and the dust contained less than 1% free silica, but dust concentrations up to 377 mg/m3 had been recorded in the past. In a cross-sectional study of a Georgia kaolin mine and processing plant, Altekruse et al. About 94­98% of the particles were kaolinite and 2­6% anastase (titanium dioxide). Five workers, all of whom worked in the kaolinite processing area with highest exposure, showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis; they had worked for the company for 7­36 years. In a cross-sectional study of pulmonary function and radiology among workers of 12 kaolin companies in Georgia (Morgan et al. Pneumoconiosis was diagnosed in six workers, all with exposures longer than 15 years. No measurements of dust were reported; a sample of airborne dust contained 1­2% free silica (Table 19).


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For example hiv infection rates us map cheap aciclovir uk, the belief that darker and/or lowliest members of society are religiously impure and inferior extends beyond Dalits to include the Japanese Burakumin hiv infection brain purchase aciclovir with american express. I also make the case that castes are (and have been) ubiquitous hiv symptoms directly after infection buy cheap aciclovir, as well as ahistorical in the sense that the structural institution is not defined by temporal or spatial limitations antiviral yahoo buy 800 mg aciclovir with amex. In other words, castes existed in the past and survive in contemporary societies beyond India, including the Philippines, the United States, and Brazil. Furthermore, since darker members of society face political, social, and economic inferiority, the practice of emulating whites while simultaneously condemning indigenous groups has become a vehicle for transcending low status. Light skin serves as a marker for modernity 199 and nationalism in many postcolonial sites, including India, Algeria, and Latin America. I draw further parallels between pigmentocracy in India by discussing similar marital preferences in the United States amongst African Americans. Finally, I consider global implications of pigmentocracy as they relate to socioeconomic conditions. In India, Latin America, and the United States darker individuals have limited access to occupational and educational sectors, thus contributing to lower incomes and standards of living. These social inequities are further reflected and perpetuated in societal treatment. The end result is a greater marginalization and discrimination of darker skinned individuals enacted by the dominant members of society. Review and Emancipatory Objectives A common perception among many scholars, communities, policy makers, and others is that racism occurs between races rather than within a race. However, pigmentocracy and its implications fit the understanding of racism as it leads to the disadvantaging of people based on dark(er) skin color and needs to be recognized as such. Moreover, by marking and understanding colorism as a form of racism, multiple levels and areas of societies are more likely to acknowledge and affect change against it. In turn, this may help decrease degrees of discrimination at the macro political and socioeconomic level, but also trickle down to micro levels of community and family. The previous chapters help to historicize and politicize the emergence of intraracial classifications in India, and the domination and disenfranchisement that follow. Furthermore, they explore the role of white, Eurocentric epistemologies in perpetuating race and caste differences. I have argued that meanings attached to skin color are temporally and spatially constituted. Yet, larger messages that venerate whiteness are also continuously circulated and driven by capitalism, imperialism, and media. In addition, I illustrated the ways in which whiteness, as a constructed and fluid entity often evades critical examination. In short, the power relationships essentially shaped by whiteness is a product of its invisibility (Garner, 2007). The meanings associated with both white and nonwhite skin color are central for implicating the production of racial essentializations governing supremacy and inferiority. Though these connotations are nuanced according to specific contexts, an increasing universally symbolic meaning is attached to skin color. It is my goal to provide a multidisciplinary theoretical basis for examining pigmentocracy in multiple areas of inquiry, including mass media, culture, caste, class, representation of women, and consumerism. My work seeks to identify and challenge past and present power distribution as it relates to whiteness and blackness in India. Additionally, the limitations of studying pigmentocracy must also be acknowledged. The effects of colonialism, imperialism, globalization, and pigmentocracy at their intersection can never be fully comprehended as the ways in which they are internalized vary across individuals, families, classes, castes, religions, groups, cultures, regions, and nationally. Rather, my goal is to provide a referencing framework for considering the larger underpinnings and malignant effects of pigmentocracy as well as provide nuanced examples of how pigmentocracy ensues on the ground level. The Indian government has taken minimal action to acknowledge and address the repressive political, economic, and sociocultural features of pigmentocracy. For example, officially reserved quotas for hiring Dalits within state positions have been established, but this has done very little to combat the economic and social disparities present between racialized groups. Anecdotal evidence, cases, and parodies exemplifying the struggles against pigmentocracy are emerging in various arenas, including among oppressed groups, celebrities, scholars, and notable commentators. That is to say, those who lay claim to the notion that they are of Aryan lineage. The evidence presented for validating this elite, Brahmin assertion mainly lies in alleged phenotypical characteristics.

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Precontemplation - Unconditional acceptance - Indirect comments Contemplation - Enhance behavioral efficacy - Enhance self efficacy - Expose social networks - Aspirational goal setting Preparation - Learning goal setting - Enhance self efficacy - Enhance behavioral efficacy - Introduce to social networks Action - Performance goal setting - Skill building - Engage in social networks Maintenance - Maintain social networks - Offer leadership opportunities - Reinforce self efficacy - Reinforce behavioral efficacy communication hiv infection rates china 800mg aciclovir with mastercard, Incentives and supportive cultures the final three components of the best programs in benchmarking are effective communication efforts hiv infection mechanism order aciclovir with amex, incentive efforts antiviral herpes zoster buy aciclovir 800mg on line, and supportive cultures hiv infection rates in virginia buy 400 mg aciclovir with mastercard. Effective communication programs serve the basic purpose of enhancing employee awareness about the links between health behaviors and health outcomes, but equally important, they make employees aware of many program offerings available to help them improve health practices. The most effective communication efforts are tailored to the individual characteristics of employees, including their personal priorities in life, and their motivational readiness to change. This is critically important because only the employees in preparation will be ready to join actual programs, and this typically represents a small portion of the population, perhaps as low as 20% of employees. Incentives may be an effective way to attract the attention of the other 80% of the employees. Incentives can be intrinsic, focusing on internal values, or extrinsic, focusing on cash awards and prizes. They can take the form of simple, small-prize giveaways to people who attend an event, cash to people who complete a health screening, chances in lotteries for larger prizes, discounts on health plan premiums, or other forms. Well designed incentive programs have been shown to push participation rates to the 70% to 90% range,9,10 however, there is little evidence that incentive programs have much impact in actually changing health behaviors. It is more difficult to eat junk food, take the elevator and smoke when everyone around you is eating nutritious food, taking the stairs and never smoking. Organizations with the best health promotion programs have been able to create organization cultures that facilitate positive health practices and have programs consistent with behavior change theories. Program Focus and Goals It makes sense to pair the program with the department most closely responsible for achieving the health or organizational goals the program is designed to achieve. If the program goal is educational, the training and development department might be most appropriate. A program centered on health screening and risk reduction might fit best in the medical or employee health department. The benefits department might be appropriate if the program is designed to reduce health care expenditures. If the program focus is broader and is designed to improve the overall well-being of the employees, direct management by the human resources department probably makes the most sense. Organizational Hierarchy the health promotion program should be at a level high enough in the organization that the manager has direct access to top management when necessary and is on the same level as line managers supervising the employees who will be enrolled in the programs. One method is to appoint a top line manager as a figurehead leader of the program. The program manager would be responsible for all administrative functions, but the figurehead top manager would be available for troubleshooting and public relations efforts. This is analogous to the city manager/mayor form of government used in some cities or the executive director/honorary national chairperson of a national campaign. Personalities, Images, Work Loads of Managers and Departments A new health promotion program is in a precarious position. Because it is a new concept that is sometimes not very well-understood, much of its long-term success will depend on how well it is positioned at its inception. Ideally, the department responsible for the health promotion program should have a positive image. The manager supervising the program director should be well-respected, very supportive of the concept, a good role model, and have sufficient time to give strong support for the program during its inception. Linkages with Other Departments the health promotion program will normally be designed to achieve numerous organizational goals, including reducing health care expenditures, improving the corporate image, reducing absenteeism, and increasing work output. In most cases, specific departments in the organization are responsible for each of these areas. Therefore, each of these departments should be linked to the health promotion program. Additionally, other departments­such as communications, public relations, and plant management­will be important to the successful day-to-day operation of the program and should also be linked to the program. Finally, the participation of the employees from all departments in the organization is critical to the growth and survival of the program. Linkages to all of these staff support departments and to line managers in other departments should therefore be established. The optimal mechanism for the linkage to each of these groups will be different in each case.

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