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Ecosystem services of the tropical seascape: Interactions anxiety scale 0-5 buy atarax 10mg online, substitutions and restoration anxiety jealousy buy atarax 10mg visa. New opportunities for combating desertification in Botswana: Women in action for sustainable land and natural resources management anxiety symptoms chills discount atarax 25mg with visa. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability anxiety symptoms burning skin atarax 25 mg mastercard, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. Assessing the distribution of disease-bearing rodents in human-modified tropical landscapes. Co-benefits of biodiversity and carbon from regenerating secondary forests in the Philippines uplands: Implications for forest landscape restoration. Reconciling theory and practice: An alternative conceptual framework for understanding payments for environmental services. Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(47), 18753-18760. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains. Globalization of the Amazon Soy and Beef Industries: Opportunities for Conservation. Neglect of ecosystems services by mining, and the worst environmental disaster in Brazil. Using the ecosystem services approach for better planning and conservation of urban green spaces: A Finland case study. Interplay of land governance and large-scale agricultural investment: evidence from Ghana and Kenya. Observation and experience linking science and indigenous knowledge at Zuni, New Mexico. Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Framework for participatory assessments and implementation of global environmental conventions at the community level. Oil conflict in Nigeria: Contending issues and perspectives of the local Niger Delta people. Cultural and ecological insights into sacred groves: managing timber resources for improved grove conservation. Report for Global Canopy Programme and International Center for Tropical Agriculture as part of the Amazonia Security Agenda Project. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences, 370(1665), 20140051. Assessing ecosystem services based on indigenous knowledge in south-eastern Burkina Faso (West Africa). International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 10(4), 313-321. Mitigating cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems impacted by climate change and anthropogenic nutrients. Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa. Changes in the relationship between soil erosion and N loss pathways after establishing soil conservation systems in uplands of Northeast Thailand. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study. The historical, environmental and socio-economic context of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. In Forests, trees and landscapes for food security and nutrition: a global assessment report. Traditional knowledge for sustainable forest management and provision of ecosystem services. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 12(1-2), 1-4. Rural-urban migration brings conservation threats and opportunities to Amazonian watersheds. The Microeconomics of Non-Timber Forest Product Collection in the Brazilian Amazon.

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Water ingested between meals passes rapidly through the stomach because the pyloric area is relaxed at that time anxiety no more buy discount atarax 25mg on-line, and thereby avoids the bactericidal effect of intragastric retention (Levine and Nalin anxiety symptoms all day order atarax 25mg line, 1976; Mossel and Oei anxiety 4 hereford bull atarax 10 mg sale, 1975) anxiety 12 signs purchase atarax 10 mg mastercard. Bottled waters have been implicated in outbreaks of waterborne disease, but there is little published information. Bottled, noncarbonated mineral water was a vehicle of Vibrio cholerae in a cholera outbreak in Portugal (Blake et al. Buttiaux (1960) attributed outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Hungary and of typhoid fever among Reprinted from: Microorganisms in Foods 2. Bottled waters, process waters, and ice 237 Polish children to ingestion of bottled water. Persons from countries with a high standard of hygiene who travel to countries where standards are lower often drink bottled water in the hope of avoiding illness. Bottled natural mineral water is sometimes used for domestic preparation of either infant formulas or dietetic foods on the assumption that it is safer than other waters. Thus, it is essential that the initial bacteriological quality of the water be high and maintained by strict control at its source and by monitoring of the bottling operation. In the absence of information on the efficacy of control at source, importing countries should seek assurance that bottled water is safe by appropriate microbiological monitoring of incoming lots. They can introduce these organisms to foods during processing, storage, or preparation. If illness occurs as a result of such contamination, the contaminated food is considered as the vehicle, although the initial source of pathogens was process water. For example, raw untreated river water was used for washing fish that were later identified as a vehicle in an outbreak of salmonellosis (Gangarosa et al. Contaminated cooling water was implicated as the source of Salmonella typhi in canned corned beef responsible for several outbreaks of typhoid fever (Howie, 1968). Water used to keep tofu (oriental soyabean curd) moist in packages was the source of Yersinia enterocolitica that was responsible for an outbreak of gastroenteritis (Nolan et al. Many of these tests are used to examine bottled water in several countries (Morisetti, 1979). The decision as to which organisms should be sought to evaluate the potability of bottled waters is complicated because unique advantages and disadvantages are associated with each indicator organism or group. These have been reviewed by Cominazzini (1978), Geldreich (1978), Hoadley and Dutka (1976), and Mossel (1976). The coliform test, even with its disadvantages, is the method chosen by the Codex working group for examining natural mineral water (Codex, 1978). Microbiological data available to the Commission indicate that bottled natural mineral water can be produced without contamination by coliforms. Examination for coliforms provides a more stringent microbiological rejection criterion than testing for E. Although certain microorganisms multiply in bottle-stored water, the organisms usually employed as indicators decrease in number with time of storage (Schmidt-Lorenz, 1976). These concerns are: (1) the sampling plan employed should give at least the same protection of public health as those required for community water supplies; (2) bottled water is usually stored longer than water in community water supplies, and during the storage period certain indicators of faecal pollution (such as coliforms) may die off more rapidly than some pathogens, while autochthonous or other allochthonus organisms multiply; and (3) home-prepared formulas for infants are sometimes reconstituted with bottled mineral water. These formulas are sometimes subject to temperature abuse between preparation and feeding. Analytical units of 250 ml should be examined for coliforms by the membrane filter method. Decreasing the c value from 2 to 0 and increasing the size of the sample unit to 250 ml make a stringent plan to serve the abovementioned considerations. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a frequent contaminant of the environment, may cause water-borne disease (Hoadley, 1976, Young, 1977, Weber et al. After adaptation, it can multiply in a mineral water of extremely low nutrient level (Schmidt-Lorenz, 1976). Indicator organisms are of little value in detecting the presence of this opportunistic pathogen. Therefore, it is recommended that natural mineral water for such a purpose be tested for P. Therefore, it is not necessary to test carbonated natural mineral waters, or other carbonated bottled waters having a pH value of 3. To determine whether testing is necessary, a sampling plan that includes testing the pH of five bottles (n) from a lot is recommended.

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Similar sex differences in more rudimentary reach-to-grasp tasks have been previously reported anxiety symptoms go away when distracted buy atarax online pills, and they suggest that sex-related differences may become amplified when the age at which operant training begins is increased anxiety while pregnant order atarax 10 mg free shipping. Sex differences have also been observed in some human neurodegenerative disorders that are marked by impaired motor function anxiety symptoms in 2 year old order atarax cheap online. Mouse models for such neurodegenerative disorders are frequently used for experiments in which researchers attempt to quantify the motor skill declines resulting from brain lesions anxiety disorders symptoms quiz order cheap atarax online, genetic aberrations, and normal aging. The present results suggest that sex differences may be pertinent to the interpretation of those experiments, and particularly when using skilled limb movement analysis such as the reach-to-grasp task. Additional studies are currently underway to assess correlations between paw reaching behavior and grip strength measures in these mice. Especially, the neurons positioned in the medial motor and lateral sensory cortex project axons topographically to the ventral and dorsal areas of the spinal cord, respectively. Voluntary Movements Title: Cell type specific computations performed in primary motor cortex Authors: *J. Towards this end we developed an integrated unique experimental setup combining a rich behavioral paradigm of head-fixed handreach motor tasks, chronic optical calcium imaging measurements of network and dendritic activities in identified neuronal subtypes and opto- and chemogenetic tools. Importantly, we access key cellular network elements according to their projection targets using novel viable functional retrograde viral vectors. However, these findings are still controversial given the crude nature of the manipulations, the lack of targeting specificity, and the proximity to the hypothalamus and the subthalamic nucleus, which have been extensively shown to influence both behaviors respectively. Although two anatomical sub-divisions have been identified (magnocellular and parvocellular segments) and participate in segregated afferent and efferent circuits, a characterization of different cell classes within the Red Nucleus at a genetic and functional level is lacking. Optogenetic activation of Vglut2 rubral neurons induces robust postural deficits and heavily impairs locomotion, whereas optical ablation of the Red Nucleus severely impairs fine motor coordination leaving locomotion marginally affected. Pathway specific modulation of Vglut2 containing rubral neurons could prove instrumental in ameliorating motor deficits characterized by abnormal muscle tone and dyskinesias in pathological conditions resistant to classical Parkinsonian syndrome treatments. However, how these complementary signals may be separately encoded in the motor cortical areas is not well understood. Here, a rhesus macaque (U) was trained to maintain a cursor within a centrally located visually defined target by manipulating a haptic device. Following either a mechanical perturbation or a cursor jump, corrections were required to complete a successful trial. We designed this task to leverage the consistent neural response latency difference between these two modalities. Critically, firing rate changes in these motor areas after a mechanical perturbation begin at ~20ms, leading the responses to a visual perturbation which begin at ~150ms. This task design has the following advantage: activity just following a combined perturbation is primarily mechanical, whereas activity just following a visual perturbation is predominantly visual. In order for our analysis to be agnostic to the fixed latency difference between modalities we aligned activity to the neural response onset following the perturbation. This indicates that visual and mechanical errors are differentially encoded in motor cortical populations beyond simple differences in latency. More broadly, this work can help to elucidate the mechanisms by which neural circuits can fuse information from diverse sensory modalities to facilitate dextrous feedback control. However, these single-neuron response changes are heterogeneous and hard to interpret mechanistically. Here, we explore the changes in neural population dynamics that underlie adaptation to curl force fields as well as the spatial generalization of adapted behaviors. We trained monkeys to adapt to a curl force field, active only during reaches to a single "adaptation" target in a ring of 12 targets. In addition, reaches to adjacent, non-adapted targets using an "error clamp" were interleaved with the curl field adaptation trials. Behaviorally, monkeys showed a Gaussian-like spatial generalization pattern: the level of hand force compensation decayed as a function of target angle away from the adaptation target. First, within a 2D subspace of the overall neural population activity state space, where preparatory activity is radially organized according to reach direction, the preparatory state for the adaptation target shifted towards that of the adjacent target opposite the direction of the curl field (as measured before adaptation). The preparatory states for nearby targets showed similar shifts towards their adjacent target states; the shifted amount diminished with a similar spatial profile as the behavioral generalization.

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Duration thresholds were computed in congruent and incongruent trials separately (in terms of cue-target category associations) anxiety symptoms for no reason order atarax 10mg online. Two-sample paired t-tests were conducted to investigate whether task irrelevant predictive cues (as priors) have an effect on duration thresholds in congruent and incongruent trials anxiety symptoms urinary cheap 25 mg atarax. Our Bayesian scheme was able to successfully capture the pattern observed in human observers anxiety zig ziglar purchase atarax 25mg mastercard, suggesting that schemes with iterative priors may lead to better models of human behavior than approaches using static priors anxiety games order 10mg atarax with mastercard. Vision Title: Prior information guides perceptual decision making in a remarkably flexible manner Authors: *J. When the sensory input is ambiguous, prior experience guides our interpretation of the environment, suggesting perception obeys the laws of probabilistic inference. While some characteristics of the sensory environment are stable, others vary with context. Here, we seek to determine the limits of our ability to integrate context-specific priors with incoming sensory information when the context changes over short timescales. We measured perceptual judgments of stimulus orientation under three different task contexts, each associated with a different distribution of stimulus orientation. Prior to stimulus onset, task-context was communicated to the observer via the color of the fixation mark. Crucially, after an initial training phase, task-context could switch from trial to trial. We found that different task contexts were associated with different decision-criteria, consistent with the optimal inference strategy. Moreover, reducing stimulus contrast yielded a stronger dependency of criterion on task context, and hence a stronger reliance on prior information. Interestingly, criterion placement did not depend on the level of context stability across trials. Thus, even immediately upon switching task context, context-specific information is readily accessible to be integrated with sensory signals. Together, these findings demonstrate that the visual system flexibly deploys optimal inference strategies when performing perceptual tasks, and hence is well adapted to operate in rapidly changing environments. As a result, prolonged exposure to particular stimuli alters judgments about subsequent stimuli. Changes in the decision-making process, however, may also be a component of adaptation. Here, we quantify sensory and decision-making contributions to adaptation in a facial expression paradigm. As expected, exposure to happy or sad expressions shifts the psychometric function toward the adaptor. More surprisingly, response times show both an overall decline and an asymmetry, with faster responses opposite the adapting category, implicating a substantial change in decision-making process. Specifically, we infer that sensory changes from adaptation are accompanied by changes in how much sensory information is accumulated for the two choices. We speculate that adaptation influences implicit expectations about the stimuli one will encounter, causing modifications in the decision-making process as part of a normative response to a change in context. Revson Foundation Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Title: Representation of the dynamics of decision-making process in the lateral intraparietal cortex during face discrimination Authors: *G. Our perceptual decisions, however, often involve more complex visual stimuli such as objects and faces, which are composed of multiple features. Decisions based on these stimuli are likely to rely on integration of evidence over space as well as time. Do similar decision-making processes underlie discrimination of simple and more complex stimuli Similar to humans (Okazawa et al, SfN 2016), monkeys performed the task by integrating sensory evidence over space and time and varied the weighting of facial features depending on task characteristics (facial identity or expression). However, many neurons showed only small response modulations during the stimulus viewing and large modulations that reflected the choice after stimulus offset, while the monkey waited for a Go cue to initiate its saccade. Further, although response modulations during stimulus viewing represented stimulus strength, the ordering of the responses of many neurons deviated from expectations based on past studies: stimuli closest to the category boundary evoked the strongest responses for both choices. Title: Representation of choice bias in the activity of prearcuate gyrus during perceptual decision making Authors: *G. Such biases may be beneficial especially when sensory information is weak or ambiguous, and prior history carries relevant information about upcoming stimuli or rewarding actions. However, little is known about the neuronal correlates of such biases and how they influence the decision-making process.

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