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In fact vasodilator drugs erectile dysfunction cheap cialis 5mg line, even congenitally blind individuals produce the same facial expression of emotions erectile dysfunction jet lag buy cialis 2.5 mg visa, despite their never having the opportunity to observe these facial displays of emotion in other people erectile dysfunction 14 year old cialis 2.5mg low price. In fact erectile dysfunction johannesburg best order cialis, there is substantial evidence for seven universal emotions that are each associated with distinct facial expressions. These include: happiness, surprise, sadness, fright, disgust, contempt, and anger (Figure 10. We also use the tone of our voices, various behaviors, and body language to communicate information about our emotional states. Watch this Today Show interview with body language expert Janine Driver openstax. Children who have autism spectrum disorders have difficulty recognizing the emotional states of others, and research has shown that this may stem from an inability to distinguish various nonverbal expressions of emotion. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that autistic individuals also have difficulty expressing emotion through tone of voice and by producing facial expressions (Macdonald et al. Difficulties with emotional recognition and expression may contribute to the impaired social interaction and communication that characterize autism; therefore, various therapeutic approaches have been explored to address these difficulties. Various educational curricula, cognitive- 372 Chapter 10 Emotion and Motivation behavioral therapies, and pharmacological therapies have shown some promise in helping autistic individuals process emotionally relevant information (Bauminger, 2002; Golan & Baron-Cohen, 2006; Guastella et al. Emotion regulation describes how people respond to situations and experiences by modifying their emotional experiences and expressions. Covert emotion regulation strategies are those that occur within the individual, while overt strategies involve others or actions (such as seeking advice or consuming alcohol). Aldao and Dixon (2014) studied the relationship between overt emotional regulation strategies and psychopathology. They researched how 218 undergraduate students reported their use of covert and overt strategies and their reported symptoms associated with selected mental disorders, and found that overt emotional regulation strategies were better predictors of psychopathology than covert strategies. Another study examined the relationship between pregaming (the act of drinking heavily before a social event) and two emotion regulation strategies to understand how these might contribute to alcohol-related problems; results suggested a relationship but a complicated one (Pederson, 2016). Further research is needed in these areas to better understand patterns of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation (Aldao & Dixon-Gordon, 2014). More biologically oriented theories deal with the ways that instincts and the need to maintain bodily homeostasis motivate behavior. Bandura postulated that our sense of self-efficacy motivates behaviors, and there are a number of theories that focus on a variety of social motives. When more calories are consumed than expended, a person will store excess energy as fat. Sociocultural factors that emphasize thinness as a beauty ideal and a genetic predisposition contribute to the development of eating disorders in many young females, though eating disorders span ages and genders. There is evidence to suggest that our motivation to engage in sexual behavior and our ability to do so are related, but separate, processes. Alfred Kinsey conducted large-scale survey research that demonstrated the incredible diversity of human sexuality. William Masters and Virginia Johnson observed individuals engaging in sexual behavior in developing their concept of the sexual response cycle. While often confused, sexual orientation and gender identity are related, but distinct, concepts. The James-Lange theory asserts that emotions arise as a function of physiological arousal. The Cannon-Bard theory maintains that emotional experience occurs simultaneous to and independent of physiological arousal. The Schachter-Singer twofactor theory suggests that physiological arousal receives cognitive labels as a function of the relevant context and that these two factors together result in an emotional experience. Both of these structures are implicated in playing a role in normal emotional processing as well as in psychological mood and anxiety disorders. Increased amygdala activity is associated with learning to fear, and it is seen in individuals who are at risk for or suffering from mood disorders. The volume of the hippocampus has been shown to be reduced in individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.

Syndromes

  • Name of the product (ingredients and strengths if known)
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  • Obesity
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  • Give your child permission to yell, cry, or otherwise express any pain verbally. Encourage your child to tell you where the pain is located.
  • The regular or transthoracic echocardiogram is unclear. Unclear results may be due to the shape of your chest, lung disease, or excess body fat.
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In contrast otc erectile dysfunction pills that work purchase cialis mastercard, the second type of decision making is affective/experiential erectile dysfunction natural remedies over the counter herbs cialis 20 mg on line, and involves intuitive impotence in young men purchase cialis with visa, automatic impotence effect on relationship discount 5mg cialis overnight delivery, associative, and fast decisions. When consumers have limited processing resources, they may pass directly from problem recognition to purchase decision to the post-purchase phase, using affective feeling to direct their choice process. So, for example, in one recent experiment, consumers with limited processing resources were more likely to choose chocolate cake, an option that generates positive affect and negative cognitions about health, than to choose fruit salad, an option that generates negative affect and positive cognitions about health (Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999). In this type of decision making, ambient mood can also affect how consumers evaluate an object through a "how do I feel about it heuristic. They often end up mistaking their current mood state for their feeling toward a product (Pham, 1998). Regarding age differences in use of deliberative and affective/experiential decision making, Hess, Rosenberg, and Waters (2001) have proposed a resource allocation hypothesis, which states that because older adults have limited cognitive resources, they tend to employ the latter affective/ experiential information processing strategy in order to conserve their mental energy for important tasks. However, this hypothesis also suggests that older adults can, when necessary, employ deliberative information processing and decision making (a production deficiency). The frontal aging hypothesis, discussed earlier in the context of memory, suggests that age-related changes in frontal systems can favor affective/experiential type decision making (see Denburg, Tranel, & Bechara, 2005, for a discussion). This would tend to suggest that some older adults are unable to employ deliberative decision making (a processing deficiency). A problem for consumer researchers has been defining what constitutes a good decision outcome. Some researchers have instructed consumers to use specific decision rules-generally the research indicates older adults are worse at applying specific decision rules. Other researchers have judged decision quality by focusing on satisfaction with choice. Research here reports that that not only does satisfaction level vary with age (Cole & Balasubramanian, 1993), but also that the relationship between satisfaction and consumer decision making varies with age (Lambert-Pandraud, Laurent, & Lapersonne, 2005). Finally, decision speed and decision efficiency are also used to judge the quality of decision outcomes. Interestingly, some decision researchers have argued that by engaging the experiential processing system more and/or reducing the analytic processing needed, younger consumers can be aided to make better (quicker and more efficient) decisions, which are more similar to those of older adults (Hibbard & Peters, 2003). Although consumer decision-making research spans a broad range of topics, researchers studying age differences in consumer decision making have tended to focus on just a few topic areas. In this section, we review the empirical evidence for age differences in search for information, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decisions, and post-purchase behavior. Search for information Older consumers often search in different places and for less information than younger consumers. In addition, older consumers spend less time searching for investment information than younger consumers (Lin & Lee, 2004). Similarly, a recent survey of automobile buyers found that older consumers searched for fewer brands, dealers, and models than younger consumers (Lambert-Pandraud, Laurent, & Lapersonne, 2005). Consistent findings have also been reported in the context of medical decisions (Ende, Kazis, Ash, & Moskowitz, 1989) and managerial decision making (Streufert, Pogash, Piaseck, & Post, 1990). Another study investigated age differences in search behavior in a supermarket setting and in a computer laboratory (Cole & Balasubramanian, 1993). In the supermarket, shoppers inspected very few packages before making a choice, so no age differences emerged in how much people searched. However, when an observer intercepted shoppers and asked them to purchase a cereal that met certain nutritional criteria, younger adults engaged in more search than older adults who did not change how much they searched. In the laboratory, using a computer search program, older adults searched for less information about unfamiliar cereals than younger adults. Whether or not age differences in search emerge, may depend on task characteristics. Age differences in search may not emerge when consumers perform simple, routine tasks such as grocery shopping because nobody searches very much in such situations. When engaging in familiar, but complex tasks, such as buying a new car, older adults may search less than younger adults because they use their years of shopping experience to design efficient search strategies. However, elderly consumers may restrict search when given a new search problem because of scarce information processing resources. For example, older consumers with diminished working memory capacity may not easily store information about alternatives in memory. Evaluation of alternatives and choice There are three subissues explored here: (1) the types of information that people of different ages attend to , (2) how people of different ages combine information to form evaluations, and (3) whether or not there are systematic age differences in actual choices. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, age affects awareness of and use of emotional information (Carstensen et al.

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Priming of a category also increases its later use (Herr erectile dysfunction caused by supplements purchase cialis 20 mg free shipping, 1989; Hoch & Ha erectile dysfunction doctor edmonton purchase 10mg cialis with mastercard, 1986; Yi relative impotence judiciary purchase cialis without prescription, 1990) impotence because of diabetes order cialis 5mg free shipping, unless people are aware of the priming manipulation (Herr, 1989; Meyers-Levy & Sternthal, 1993). In a branding context, Morrin (1999) analyzed whether exposing consumers to a hypothetical brand extension. The logic here is that if a person responds rapidly to a connection between Crest and toothpaste, then the brand extension (Crest mouthwash) also activates the parent brand (Crest) category. Morrin found that exposure to the brand extension increased accessibility of the parent brand, with the increase being less for typical than atypical brands in the category. Morrin also found that when the brand extension was a good fit for the brand category. These effects replicate earlier consumer research indicating that prototypical category members are chronically more accessible than atypical category members (cf. Nedungadi & Hutchinson, 1985; Boush & Loken, 1991), and that priming a category increases its accessibility (Herr, 1989). A similar finding for accessibility and priming occurred in a different context, when ninth graders were primed with either cigarette ads or nonsmoking ads (Pechmann & Knight, 2002). Because most ninth graders have negative perceptions of smoking, anti-smoking beliefs should be chronically accessible whereas pro-smoking beliefs should not. Indeed, the authors found that priming pro-smoker beliefs (with cigarette ads) led to increases in pro-smoking responses. Priming with both anti- and pro-smoking ads also led to no changes; the anti-smoking prime counteracted the pro-smoking one. Specifically, comparative ads (showing a target brand along with a competitor) benefit an atypical brand such as Shasta cola, more than they benefit a typical brand such as Coke. Priming a category has also been found to influence the type of processing in which consumers engage. Priming category information increases relational processing, or the extent to which consumers elaborate on the relationships or similarities between the category and the target object, relative to processing specific attribute information of the target object alone (Malaviya, MeyersLevy, & Sternthal, 1999). Even imagined easeof-retrieval influences judgments (Wanke, Bohner, & Jurkowitsch, 1997). In general, consumers utilize accessible experiences in evaluation and decision making, unless the relevance or information-value of these experiences is called into question (Schwarz, 2004). Consumer research on these meta-cognitive theories is increasing and provides an interesting focus for future research. Modality-Specific Representations in Conceptual Processing: Where Do Categories Reside An important recent development in cognitive psychology is an increased empirical and theoretical interest in the interplay between cognitive systems. In contrast to the traditional approach of viewing cognitive and modality-specific systems as functionally separate, recent research in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience suggests that representations in modality-specific systems underlie conceptual knowledge (for reviews of relevant empirical findings, see Barsalou, 2003b; Barsalou, Niedenthal, Barbey, & Ruppert, 2003; Martin, 2001; Pecher & Zwaan, 2005). Later, when representing a category in the absence of any members, the brain reenacts or "simulates" these perceptions, actions, and mental states. Barsalou (1999, 2003a) argues that these simulations can implement the central symbolic operations that underlie the human conceptual system, including categorical inference, the type-token distinction, predication, and conceptual combination. For example, in classifying a perceived category member, a simulation of the category is retrieved that is grounded in the modalities. In this way, the conceptual representation of a category (a modality-specific simulation) is similar to the perceived representation of the category, rather than being different (an amodal representation), thereby facilitating comparisions between them. Barsalou and Wiemer-Hastings (2005) further extend this approach to the representation of abstract concepts. Consumer research is consistent with the view that modality-specific and conceptual systems are linked. Unnava, Agarwal, and Haugtvedt (1996) presented consumers with advertising information that was high in imagery-provoking ability (either high in visual imagery or high in auditory imagery) and then engaged them in a perceptual task involving either reading or listening to the information. They found that when mental images were activated, they competed with available cognitive resources if consumers were asked to perform perceptual processing in the same modality. The learning of visual information was reduced if the consumer read, rather than listened to , the information; the learning of auditory information was reduced if the consumer heard, rather than read, the information.

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Research by Kozinets on the Star Trek culture of consumption (2001) and the Burning Man project (2002) has helped refine distinctions among sub-cultures and brand communities does erectile dysfunction cause low sperm count buy cheap cialis. Kozinets (2002) emphasized that communities form in response to an exploitative ethos that weakens social ties and dampens self-expressive practices impotence webmd generic cialis 5mg without prescription. Thus a reconceptualization of the community of consumption was offered: as "re-gatherings of the collective force required to resist the atomizing and self-expression-crushing capabilities of large corporations erectile dysfunction caused by obesity cheap cialis 2.5mg with mastercard. This research also reinforced how individuals within the culture acted as independent meaning makers ascribing divergent meanings to the brand in order to arrive at a personally appropriate definition of Star Trek consumption impotence ultrasound buy discount cialis online. These findings suggested further refinement of the community concept to exclude the assumed requirement for a commonly shared identity through the brand. This research concerned the abandoned Apple Newton community, which, unlike the corporate-sponsored Harley-Davidson community, was supported exclusively through the grassroots efforts of involved consumers. The power of folklore, mythology and rumor in brand community maintenance was also stressed. This work reinforced the theory of the brandas-narrative, wherein the brand was defined by the stories that took hold as the brand circulated through culture and consumption groups (Brown, 2003; Holt, 2004). Recent community research has concerned specific mechanisms through which communities are formed and sustained. A vibrant research stream has developed around the concept of authenticity: the quest for the real, genuine, and irreplaceable that pioneering community researchers placed at the heart of brand community development, operation, and preservation (see also Elliott & Davies, 2006). Grayson and Martinec (2004) explored the concept of authenticity by drawing on semiotic theory. Recent research by Rose and Wood (2005) on reality television demonstrates how viewers can cope with and accept fantasy and simulation-obvious elements of inauthenticity and blatant violations of the genuine-through successful negotiation of the paradoxes presented in situations, characters, and production venues. This research reinforced authenticity as a co-production, an active discourse, an engaged and interactive process of viewer interpretation within the postmodern milieu. This insight parallels the work of Arnould and Price (2000), who argued that authenticity was created through the recital of authenticating acts revealing the true self and authoritative performances aimed at inventing or refashioning cultural traditions. Recent community research also concerns the development of contingency theories that circumscribe community manifestations and qualify community forms. Firat and Venkatesh (1995) were the first to expose the micro processes and practices through which postmodern consumers attempted to (re)gain control over marketer-dominated brands. Holt (2002) elaborated on consumers as unruly "bricoleurs" who never accepted marketer dictates and used brands for selfcreation rather than allowing brands unequivocally to define them. Thompson and Haytko (1997) demonstrated the many specific ways in which clever consumers cobbled together, juxtaposed, and combined countervailing meanings in the fashion domain to create unique, personal meanings that often ran against the grain of existing social categories. Research on the coffee culture by Thompson and Arsel (2004) provided evidence of consumer collectives hijacking particular brand meanings and expressions, as for example, with satires of the Starbucks logo. The practice of "culture jamming" the signal of the broadcast marketing message-countering and otherwise undermining the continuous flow of marketing messages-has become especially prevalent (Lasn, 1999). Jamming activities aimed against advertising and the capitalist structure that supports it have been studied in the context of the quarterly magazine Adbusters (Rumbo, 2002), its sponsoring organization, the Media Foundation (Handelman, 1999), and the Front for the Liberation from Advertising (Kozinets & Handelman, 2004). Handelman (1999) provides numerous examples of the ways in which resistance against marketing is enacted, including changing ad copy and creating parodies of actual advertising campaigns. Boycotts, especially of global brands, have received specific attention (Friedman, 1999; Garrett, 1987; Miller & Sturdivant, 1977). Unlike groups that fight perceived market dominance through boycotts or manipulation and avoidance of major branded products, these communities rebel through the community-sanctioned consumption of brands. Brand politics stands as the explicit agenda for BlackSpot sneakers, which positions itself squarely as the anti-brand brand. Research on the resistance efforts of consumers has led some to argue that the entire domain of branded consumption is shifting to the political realm. The focus of "post postmodern" resistant consumers, it is argued, has turned from brand meanings and images to the morals and ethics of the organization behind the brand: its performance as a community stakeholder and civic institution and the social implications of its use (Holt, 2002).

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