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Local leaders were also involved in public awareness campaigns impotence guilt discount dapoxetine 30mg without prescription, and special meetings were organized just for Roma women erectile dysfunction pump prescription discount dapoxetine online master card. There are several examples from Europe and Central Asia: In the Kyrgyz Republic erectile dysfunction and zantac order dapoxetine, men and women were trained as community-based advisers to provide free advice to villagers on the process of applying for land ownership erectile dysfunction zocor buy 30 mg dapoxetine. Agency for International Development included supporting a group of women to mount a legal challenge to the decision of a local official to revoke their land rights. The bureaus centralize at least nine key service providers in one office, reducing time spent visiting multiple locations, and have helped more than 10,000 women, primarily those from remote rural areas. This will help inform policy interventions to ensure the inclusion of women in land titling programs. A broad approach needs to ensure that beneficial customary and communal rights are recognized and respected, coupled with reforms to promote gender equality and provide effective implementation. Hien Tran, and Matt Bannick, "Why Land Should be Part of the Post 2015 Development Agenda," Landesa, New Delhi, 2013. World Bank and International Finance Corporation, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013). Nancy Qian, "Missing Women and the Price of Tea in China: the Effect of Sex-Specific Earning on Sex Imbalance," Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. Esther Duflo, "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa," the World Bank Economic Review, 17, no. Maluccio, "Resources at Marriage and Intrahousehold 16 Bina Agarwal, "Gender and Command over Property: A Critical Gap in Economic Analysis and Policy in South Asia," World Development 22, no. Carmen Diana Deere and Jennifer Twyman, "Asset Ownership and Egalitarian Decision Making in Dual-Headed Households in Ecuador," Review of Radical Political Economics 44, no. Gender and Property Rights in Urban Informal Settlements in India," Feminist Economics 12, nos. The probabilities are married women, 32 percent; 10 percent, respectively; living together: 21 percent; widowed: 25 percent; formerly married: 14 percent. Ali, Deininger, and Goldstein, "Environmental and Gender Impacts of Land Tenure Regularization in Africa. World Bank and International Finance Corporation, Women, Business and the Law 2014. For married women, the probability of owning housing if she lives in a country with community of property regime is 43 percent compared to 26 percent in a country with a separation of property regime. The equivalent figures for never married women are 16 percent in a country with a community of property regime compared to 4 percent in a country with a separation of property regime. Vanguard, "Nigeria: Inheritance Rights for Girl Child," All Africa Reports, April 24, 2014. Daniel Ayalew Ali, Klaus Deininger, and Markus Goldstein, "Can Land Tenure Regularization Empower Women Keith Bell, "Lessons from the Reconstruction of Post-Tsunami Aceh: Build Back Better through Ensuring Women Are at the Center of Reconstruction of Land and Property," Smart Lessons, 2011. Daniel Alayew Ali, Matthew Collin, Klaus Deininger, Stefan Dercon, Justin Sandefur, and Andrew Zeitlin, "Are Poor Slum-Dwellers Willing to Pay for Formal Land Title World Bank, "Toolkit for Integrating Gender-Related Issues in Land Policy and Administration Projects. Participation in decision making enables women to voice their needs and challenge gender norms in their community-individually and collectively. Digital technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet provide new avenues for greater voice, increased access to knowledge, and the potential for developing wider social and professional networks. The extent to which women are able to participate in public decision-making and make their voices heard is shaped by social norms, the legal framework, and by the nature of formal political institutions such as political parties and parliamentary structures. This is reflected in the interaction of formal and informal institutions in our framework in figure 1. Public discussion is an important vehicle for social change and economic progress.
The New York State Commission on Judicial Conduct determined that removal was the appropriate sanction for a judge who had (1) failed to remit court funds to the state comptroller by the tenth day of the month following collection as required by statute erectile dysfunction review purchase cheap dapoxetine on line, (2) failed to respond to three letters sent certified mail by staff counsel impotence nitric oxide 30 mg dapoxetine with mastercard, and (3) failed without explanation to appear for the purpose of giving testimony erectile dysfunction normal age buy cheapest dapoxetine and dapoxetine. In the Matter of Driscoll impotence caused by medications buy generic dapoxetine pills, Determination (New York Commission on Judicial Conduct March 20, 1996) ( In the Matter of Carney, Determination (New York Commission on Judicial Conduct September 19, 1996) ( The New York Court of Appeals accepted the determination of the State Commission on Judicial Conduct that a judge should be removed from office for two incidents in which he improperly jailed individuals for their purported failure to pay fines and restitution obligations that he had imposed. When the defendant appeared on the warrant, the judge summarily sentenced him to jail for contempt, refusing to give him an opportunity to retain an attorney. In the second incident, an individual whom the judge had fined for speeding asserted that she was unable to pay, but the judge did not offer her a hearing under statute or advise her of her right to apply for resentencing but insisted that she pay. When the same individual appeared before the judge on a charge of issuing a check with insufficient funds, the judge directed her to pay restitution without ever taking a plea and thus imposed a sentence without the defendant ever having been convicted. Additionally, he noted on his docket that the defendant was obliged to pay a $50 fine, but he never advised her of that penalty. The defendant periodically made small payments until the judge told her that she had paid everything she owed. Although receipts for these payments were issued, nothing indicated to which charge the money had been applied, and no court records were made of any payments that were applied toward the restitution obligation. More than a year and a half after her last payment had been made, the defendant received a letter from the judge asserting that her speeding fine had still not been paid. When the defendant told the judge that she was unable to pay any more, he suspended her license. In the Matter of Miller, Determination (New York Commission on Judicial Conduct January 19, 1996) ( Accepting the determination of the State Commission on Judicial Conduct, the New York Court of Appeals removed from office a part-time judge who had been disbarred for conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, and deceit in his handling of an estate in his capacity as a private attorney. He had taken $242,745 in unauthorized fees from an estate for which he was an attorney and executor. The judge never notified any of the other parties of his relationship with the trooper or the family. Without elaboration, the New York Court of Appeals accepted the determination of the State Commission on Judicial Conduct that removal was the appropriate sanction for a judge who had displayed bias and improper demeanor in a number of cases, including commenting to his court clerk, that "every woman needs a good pounding now and then," and stating to his clerk and another judge that he felt that orders of protection "were not worth anything because they are just a piece of paper," that they are "a foolish and unnecessary thing," and that they are "useless" and of "no value. The New York State Commission on Judicial Conduct determined that removal was the appropriate sanction for a judge who had improperly intervened on behalf of his daughter in three incidents. When the judge asked one of the officers where his granddaughter was, the officer, who did not know the judge, refused to reveal her whereabouts. He stood within two feet of the officer and, raising his hand, yelled, "Where the fuck do you live The judge and a friend drove around the village looking for Judge Danehy until they spotted him pumping gasoline at a station on a public street. Judge 135 American Judicature Society Danehy was frightened and appeared shaken after the confrontation. The judge had also advanced under oath varying versions of the circumstances surrounding the note that were at odds with the testimony of the court attorney. When counsel for the committee asked the judge whether there were any complaints or other problems with the Commission, the judge said "no. Accepting the determination of the State Commission on Judicial Conduct, the New York Court of Appeals removed a judge from office for (1) a pattern of knowing disregard of the law, (2) intemperate, disparaging namecalling of young prosecutors, and (3) insensitive remarks. Cases were dismissed without notice or an opportunity for the prosecution to be heard, without allowing an opportunity to redraft charges, without requiring written motions, and in the case of adjournments in contemplation of dismissal, without the consent of the prosecutor. For example, the judge subjected prosecutors to harsh, personal criticisms when they would not accept his view as to the "worth" of a case. The judge chastised prosecutors for their bail recommendations because he did not want to be criticized for setting low bail and his lectures about the unfair actions of "your society" or "your government" at times elicited laughter or applause in the courtroom.
Understand special motivational counseling considerations for clients mandated to treatment erectile dysfunction treatment chicago discount 30mg dapoxetine with amex. Develop Rapport and Build Trust Before you raise the topic of change with people who are not thinking about it erectile dysfunction and proton pump inhibitors order dapoxetine cheap online, establish rapport and trust erectile dysfunction drugs market order dapoxetine toronto. The challenge is to create a safe and supportive environment in which clients can feel comfortable about engaging in authentic dialog erectile dysfunction drugs sales cheap dapoxetine 60mg on line. As clients become more engaged in counseling, their defensiveness and reluctance to change decreases (Prochaska, Norcross, & DiClemente, 2013). Telling the client something about how you or your program operates and how you and the client could work together. State how long sessions will last and what you expect to accomplish both now and over a specifed time. Specify what assessments or other formal arrangements will be needed, if appropriate. You must inform the client which information will be kept private, which can be released with permission, and which must be sent back to a referring agency. Explaining that you will not tell the client what to do or how and whether to change. Rather, you will be asking the client to do most of the talking-giving him or her perspective about what is happening while inviting the client to share his or her own perspective. If the client seems particularly hesitant or defensive, one strategy is to choose a topic of interest to the client that can be linked to substance use. This can lead naturally to questions such as "How does your use of alcohol ft into this Be transparent about the policy and what actions you will take if the client comes to a session intoxicated. Coming to treatment intoxicated on alcohol or drugs impairs ability to participate in treatment, whether it is for an initial counseling session, assessment, or individual or group treatment (Miller, Forechimes, & Zweben, 2011). Many programs administer breathalyzer tests for alcohol or urinalysis for drugs and reschedule counseling sessions if substances are detected at a specifed level or if a client appears to be under the infuence (Miller et al. If you determine that a client is intoxicated, ask the client in a nonjudgmental way to leave. Explore the Events That Led to Entering Treatment Explore what brought the client to treatment, starting by recognizing his or her emotional state. The emotional state in which the client comes to treatment is an important part of the context in which counseling begins. People may enter treatment feeling shaken, angry, withdrawn, ashamed, terrifed, or relieved and are often experiencing a combination of feelings. Strong emotions can become obstacles to change if you do not acknowledge them through refective listening. For example, an athlete is likely to be concerned about his or her continued participation in sports, as well as athletic performance; an employee may want to keep his or her job; and a driver is probably worried about the possibility of losing his or her license, going to jail, or injuring someone. A pregnant woman wants a healthy child; a mother may want to regain custody of her children; and a concerned husband needs specifc guidance on encouraging his spouse to enter treatment. Many people with substance use problems seek treatment in response to external pressure from family, friends, employers, healthcare providers, or the legal system (Connors, DiClemente, Velasquez, & Donovan, 2013). If the client thinks a probation offcer is the problem, you can ask, "Why do you think your probation offcer believes you have a problem The Importance Ruler indicates how important it is for the client to make a change right now. Clients in Precontemplation will typically be at the lower end of the rulers, generally between 0 and 3. The client moves forward or backward across stages or jumps from one part of the continuum to another, in either direction and at various times. Clients will present with different expressions of sustain talk (see Chapter 3), which is the status quo side of ambivalence about changing substance use behaviors. Styles of Expression in the Precontemplation Stage: the 5 Rs Individuals with addictive behaviors who are not yet contemplating change usually express sustain talk in one or more of fve different ways. Providing objective, nonjudgmental feedback about their substance use and associated health risks or other negative consequences can raise doubt about their ability to avoid negative effects of substance use on their lives. Clients lack knowledge about the dimensions of the problem or the personal impact it can have to think change is necessary.
Overall fast facts erectile dysfunction order cheap dapoxetine on line, divorce is still not widely socially acceptable erectile dysfunction holistic treatment buy cheap dapoxetine 90 mg line, and in some regions it is even becoming less so zantac causes erectile dysfunction dapoxetine 90mg free shipping, as in Latin America and the Caribbean and in South Asia impotence leaflets best 90 mg dapoxetine. These countries include some middle-income and high-income countries, such as Israel, Jordan, and Malaysia. The following section discusses the evidence on what works and identifies key priorities for moving forward. These patterns-of cultural norms, education, and links to poverty-begin to point to the layered challenges that policy makers need to address. Across Africa, each additional year a girl is married before age 18 has been found to reduce her probability of literacy by about 6 percentage points, the probability of having at least some secondary schooling by 8 percentage points, and the probability of secondary school completion by almost 7 percentage points. Interventions have also tested incentives for preventing child marriage and for supporting girls and their families. Interventions to expand education and economic opportunities offer promise when the need for safe spaces, life skills, and job skills are considered. As discussed in chapter 2, a common factor across many successful approaches is an acknowledgment of the powerful role of gender norms. Mass media campaigns are associated with higher approval of contraception and better communication between partners about use. Male outreach workers engaged men who were not using contraception in discussions about gender roles and norms, especially around the norm of having large families to demonstrate virility. As a result, contraceptive use increased significantly, which was attributed to greater ease and frequency of communication between partners, resulting in more joint decision-making. Improving the quality of services and availability of contraceptive methods can increase agency. A recent Egyptian study suggests that certain dimensions of quality are particularly important, including privacy during medical examinations and respect for patient confidentiality, as well as facility cleanliness, friendly staff, shorter wait times, and limited staff turnover. They worked with akunjira to transform existing rituals into opportunities for health-promoting messages. Girls and boys were encouraged to go to school and become sexually active only when they are socially, mentally, and physically mature. At the same time, young people were trained as peer educators and volunteer condom distributors in their communities. The Chapsinja senior chief now plans to serve as a bridge to chiefs in surrounding areas. Such measures can include client ratings of overall service satisfaction and such indicators as perceived respect for dignity, provision of satisfactory information and explanation, informed choice and consent, and availability of preferred contraceptive methods. These monitoring indicators link to mechanisms of social accountability, as highlighted in box 4. As a result of the program, the maternal mortality rate declined by 49 percent in intervention facilities, compared to 25 percent in control facilities. In Rwanda, incentives have been introduced for community health workers based on their performance of certain functions, like referrals of women for antenatal care, institutional delivery, referrals of new users of family planning, and the number of current users. In Peru, a citizen surveillance program increased the number of births in health facilities by almost one-third in just one year and increased access to culturally appropriate delivery options. Recent work from Orissa, India, identified three effective processes that had positive impacts on reproductive and maternal health: generating demand for rights and better services through information campaigns, leveraging intermediaries to legitimize the demands of poor and marginalized women, and sensitizing leaders and health providers to the needs of women. In Nicaragua, vouchers valid for three months can be used for one free consultation and a free follow-up visit for services such as counseling on family planning and antenatal care. Vouchers are distributed to adolescents and youth by nongovernmental organizations in markets, outside schools, in clinics, on the streets, and door-to-door, and they can be transferred to another adolescent. In Brazil, soap operas have successfully promoted lower fertility by portraying smaller families as a Chapter 4 Control over Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 109 Programmatic efforts to combat child marriage have gained momentum over the past two decades, with some encouraging results, albeit many still on a small scale. Most evaluated programs (18 out of 23 in a recent systematic review)125 focus on girls themselves, through life skills training, vocational and livelihood skills training, sexual and reproductive health training, communication campaigns, mentoring and peer group training, and "safe space" club models. Several programs have changed knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in just a few years, although it is not yet clear which specific components are most important. Over a 20-year period, fertility rates were significantly lower in communities exposed to the show than in unexposed communities; the effect was greatest among women in lower socioeconomic groups and women in the middle and end of their fertile years. We have seen clear evidence that attending school reduces the likelihood of child marriage.
Noting that although she was reappointed erectile dysfunction drugs and melanoma order on line dapoxetine, her reappointment was without tenure due to a break in service erectile dysfunction for young males generic dapoxetine 90mg online, the court concluded that the "judge has already paid a heavy price for her intemperate behavior erectile dysfunction drugs malaysia order 60 mg dapoxetine overnight delivery. The court also stated that it had chosen to suspend the judge for 3 rather than 6 months vacuum pump for erectile dysfunction in pakistan buy generic dapoxetine 60 mg on line, as recommended by one committee member, because due to the constitutional prohibition against a judge engag[ing] in the practice of law or other gainful pursuit" they were "concerned about the substantial adverse consequences of a longer suspension. The court concluded, "A public reprimand in the presence of such serious misconduct and oppression in office only serves to further that erosion. Length of suspension Once it is decided that censure is too lenient and removal too harsh, courts and commission must decide what length of suspension is just right. In 12 cases, the supreme court disagreed with the commission and either lengthened the suspension (7 cases) or shortened it (5 cases). The suspensions imposed from 1990 to 2001 ranged from three days (In the Matter of Jacobi, 715 N. There were 48 suspensions under 6 months (1 for 5 months; 11 for 3 months; 1 for 75 days; 9 for 2 months; 1 for 45 days; 8 for 1 month; 7 for 15 days; 3 for 14 days; 3 for 10 days; 2 for 7 days; and 2 for 3 days). There were 10 suspensions over 6 months (1 for two years; 3 for 18 months; 4 for 1 year; 1 for 9 months; 1 for 7 months). Noting that the judge had decided not to seek retention and his present term expired in less than six months, the Arizona Supreme Court suspended a judge until the end of his term for using profane language and a racial epithet but emphasized that "this case is not authority for the proposition that removal is inappropriate for this sort of conduct. Therefore, the decision apparently resulted in an unpaid suspension of approximately four months. The only explanation the court gave for not adopting the recommendation of the Commission on Retirement, Removal and Discipline to remove the judge was that the judge had not been the subject of prior complaints in over 17 years as a municipal judge. The sanction was for intentionally striking or pushing his wife, causing her to fall. The bar from future office was part of the justification given by the Arizona Supreme Court in In re Jett, 882 P. The judge had signed an order releasing her boyfriend from jail after he had been arrested on suspicion of domestic violence. The commission had recommended censure and a 60-day suspension, and the two dissenting justices would also have imposed a shorter suspension. Noting that the judge would forever be barred from holding judicial office, the court stated, "Because Respondent may be fit to hold judicial office at some time in the future, and because the City Council has removed her from office for the balance of her term, we conclude that the public will be adequately protected if we simply suspend Respondent effective the date on which the City Council removed her. In fact, because a judge may not practice law while suspended, the effect may even be more detrimental than removal (assuming the judge does not resign rather than serve a long suspension). Moreover, whatever the collateral consequences to a judge of removal, those consequences are outweighed by the consequences to the justice system of a lengthy suspension, at least in most circumstances. In 22 cases, the state supreme court imposed a less severe sanction than that imposed or recommended by the commission; in 20 cases, the court imposed a more severe sanction. At least 32 cases, including some of the 41 cases in which the court had disagreed with the commission, a minority of the reviewing court dissented from the sanction imposed. In 4 of these cases, there were dissents that would have imposed the sanction recommended by the commission. In 5 cases, the court reduced the length of the suspension recommended by the commission. In 2 cases, the supreme court publicly reprimanded a judge when the commission had recommended a suspension. In 3 cases, the supreme court removed the judge from office when the commission had recommended a less severe sanction. In 3 of the cases, removal was also the sanction recommended or determined by the commission. Similarly, in some cases in which dissents were filed, the dissents do not explain why they would impose a different sanction, although in some of the cases the sanction advocated is the same as that recommended by the commission. Given the difficulty of the sanction decision and the goal of fostering public confidence in the judiciary, it is important that a sanction decision is thoroughly explained, particularly in a case in which there is a debate about the appropriate sanction. If the reviewing court does not explain the basis for its rejection of a commission sanction recommendation, it misses an opportunity to assist the commission by providing standards that can be applied in future cases.
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