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This section covers the limited information we could find on the prevalence of these types of violence in South Asia treatment quotes and sayings purchase 500mg hydrea. During times of conflict or natural disasters medicine while pregnant order generic hydrea, the vulnerability of girls to some of these forms of violence may increase as household structures and protection are disrupted treatment 5th metacarpal fracture order genuine hydrea line. Much of the large body of regional work on child abuse is symptoms 5th week of pregnancy discount hydrea uk, unfortunately, not disaggregated by the sex of the child. Fifty percent or more of all surveyed girls experienced one or more forms of physical or sexual violence and emotional violence (figures 2. Physical violence is particularly prevalent for girls living on the streets or in correctional institutions (figure 2. While these studies, reviewed below, provide a picture of such abuse faced by girls, these numbers can rarely be used to generate prevalence or trend estimates as studies vary by area, date, sample, and methodology. Girl Child Sexual and Physical Abuse in the Home and School Multiple national-level and small-scale studies illustrate that sexual and physical abuse faced by girls is a critical yet inadequately documented issue, both in the home and at school. Iravani (2011) found that in India, 30 percent of men and 40 percent of women in her study remembered being sexually molested during childhood. In Bhutan (Heiberg and Thukral 2013) and Nepal (Slugget 2003) also, more girls than boys reported sexual abuse. For adolescent girls, nonconsensual sexual experiences at school are one of the most common types of sexual harassment (Jejeebhoy and Bott 2003). An unpublished 2009 study, "National Study on Violence against Children in Maldives," cited in Heiberg and Thukral (2013), found that one in seven children in secondary school had been sexually abused, with twice as many girls as boys sexually abused. The persistence of sexual abuse of girls in schools may reflect current trends, such as an increasing number of young girls continuing education beyond primary school or increased mingling of girls and boys in schools. Alternatively, it could also reflect that adults in positions of authority over young children and adolescents are taking advantage of it (Jejeebhoy and Bott 2003). Boys seem to be more at risk than girls for harsh physical punishment and abuse (Krug et al. In India, reportedly almost every second child, whether girl or boy, perceives herself or himself as emotionally abused. In Afghanistan, girls have been found to have double the risk of predicted psychopathology and symptoms of depression related to emotional abuse as compared to boys (Panter-Brick et al. Violence against Girl Children on the Street Very little gender-disaggregated data were found on violence faced by the large percentage of girls across the world that comprise so-called "street children. A study in Bangladesh (Conticini and Hulme 2007) found that once on the street, girls were twice as likely as boys on the streets to experience all forms of violence, especially sexual violence. Girls may be particularly vulnerable to sexual and physical abuse because of chaos created by war and unrest. Both are practices whereby girls, at puberty or even younger, are offered to a god, after which they are expected to devote their lives to that god. In Bhutan, such pressure takes a unique form through a perversion of a traditional form of courtship known as "night hunting. But there is evidence that urban men abuse this form of courtship to force sex on adolescent and young women (Black and Stalker 2006). There is also increasing evidence of cyber bullying and cyber sexual harassment among South Asian adolescents. The Aurat Foundation (2012) estimates that in Pakistan, 10 percent of sexual harassment incidents reported by their survey respondents included sexually explicit emails and text messages. This is not surprising: partner violence is the most prevalent form of physical and sexual violence against women in the world (Heise 2011). Yet, in the South Asian family structure and hierarchy, where mothers-in-law and other elders in the marital family exercise great and often unchallenged authority and power over daughters-inlaw, violence by these other domestic relatives needs further study. In studies that do compare marital domestic violence by different family members, women respondents named mothers-in-law as the second-most frequent source of domestic violence after husbands in India (Krishnan et al. Mothers-in-law were also named as the most frequent instigators of violence among self-immolation victims in Afghanistan (Raj et al. Specifically, dowry has morphed from a traditional parental bequest or voluntary gift to a daughter upon marriage to an obligatory, increasingly onerous "groom-price" that the groom and his family own and over which the bride has no control (Anderson 2000, 2004; Suran et al.
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Developmental abnormalities (microcephaly with open eyes symptoms your having a boy best hydrea 500 mg, limb defects treatment viral pneumonia order hydrea, and growth retardation) were observed in 28% of the fetuses of rats exposed to feed containing 80% cassava powder during gestation (Singh 1981) symptoms enlarged spleen purchase hydrea 500 mg with amex. Teratogenic effects (encephalocele and rib abnormalities) were reported in hamsters exposed to a single oral dose of amygdalin during gestation symptoms to diagnosis order hydrea 500 mg, but these changes were found only at maternally toxic doses (Willhite 1982). Blood cyanide increased to a peak of 110 nmol/mL at 3 hours after such a dose of linamarin or to 140 nmol/mL after amygdalin (Frakes et al. In contrast, no major developmental effects were observed in rats that were fed a basal cassava diet providing 1. When pigs were fed a cassava diet alone or one supplemented with potassium cyanide for 110 gestation days, no effects on number of fetuses or upon fetal weight were observed in the 11. The rat and pig studies by Tewe and Maner (1981a, 1981b) are not presented in Table 3-2 or Figure 3-2 because they did not include control groups fed cyanide-free diets. Studies for dogs have been omitted because that species has a relatively low amount of the detoxifying enzyme rhodanese and is unusually susceptible to cyanide exposure compared to humans or other mammals (see Sections 3. However, the main route of exposure is considered to be inhalation and, therefore, the occupational exposure studies are discussed in Section 3. Studies involving conjunctival exposure are discussed in this section, although not strictly involving the dermal route. Similar differences in toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide were observed after cyanide was applied to the inferior conjunctival sac of one eye (Ballantyne 1983a, 1983b, 1988). Deaths occurred also in guinea pigs when their skin was exposed to hydrogen cyanide; however, the doses could not be quantified (Fairley et al. It should be noted that none of the studies in this section reported the surface area to which the cyanide was applied. The systemic effects observed in humans and animals after dermal exposure to cyanide are discussed below. Breathing irregularities including Cheyne-Stokes respiration developed in two persons who fell into cisterns containing copper cyanide or potassium cyanide (Dodds and McKnight 1985; Trapp 1970) and one person whose hands were exposed to hydrogen cyanide (Potter 1950). Rapid breathing was reported as the first sign of toxicity in rabbits that received 0. Similarly, labored or rapid breathing preceded coma and death in guinea pigs exposed dermally to unknown doses of hydrogen cyanide (Fairley et al. Peripheral vasoconstriction and gross plasma extravasation were reported in a man who accidentally fell into a cistern with hot copper cyanide (Dodds and McKnight 1985). No studies were located regarding cardiovascular effects in animals after dermal exposure to cyanide. Acute dermal exposure of guinea pigs to an unknown concentration of hydrogen cyanide resulted in submucous hemorrhages in the stomach as observed at necropsy (Fairley et al. The information regarding renal effects following dermal exposure to cyanide in No studies were located regarding gastrointestinal effects in humans after humans is limited to one case report. Transitory oliguria (scanty urination) was observed in a patient who accidentally fell into a cistern containing 1,000 gallons of hot copper cyanide and remained there for 3 minutes before being rescued (Dodds and McKnight 1985). No studies were located regarding renal effects in animals after dermal exposure to cyanide. No studies were located regarding dermal effects in humans after dermal exposure to When the skin of rabbits was exposed to 5,000 ppm cyanide as cyanogen for 8 hours, no dermal lesions were found (McNerney and Schrenk 1960). Vascular congestion was reported in the skin of guinea pigs after exposure to unknown doses of hydrogen cyanide for 65 minutes (Fairley et al. Irritation, lacrimation, and conjunctival hyperemia were present immediately after the treatment. No studies were located regarding ocular effects in humans after dermal exposure to 3. Similarly, a worker, whose hand was exposed to liquid hydrogen cyanide, fell into a coma, lost deep reflexes, and showed dilated pupils within 5 minutes (Potter 1950). The workers wore masks that were reported to give excellent respiratory protection.
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