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Inertness: the objectifier treats the object as lacking in agency pain treatment wiki order imdur with a mastercard, and perhaps also in activity pain treatment kolkata best imdur 40mg. Fungibility: the objectifier treats the object as interchangeable (a) with other objects of the same type fremont pain treatment center order imdur 40mg on-line, and/or (b) with objects of other types pain sacroiliac joint treatment discount imdur 20mg without prescription. Violability: the objectifier treats the object as lacking in boundary-integrity, as something that it is permissible to break up, smash, break into. Ownership: the objectifier treats the object as something that is owned by another, can be bought or sold, etc. Denial of subjectivity: the objectifier treats the object as something whose experience and feelings (if any) need not be taken into account. Treating things as objects is not objectification, since, as I have suggested, objectification entails making into a thing, treating as a thing, something that is really not a thing. Nonetheless, thinking for a bit about our familiar ways of treating things will help us to see that these seven features are commonly present, and distinct from one another. Most inanimate objects are standardly regarded as tools of our purposes, though some are regarded as worthy of respect for their beauty, or age, or naturalness. Most inanimate objects are treated as lacking autonomy, though at times we do regard some objects in nature, or even some machines, as having a life of their own. Many are fungible with other objects of a similar sort (one ballpoint pen with another), and also, at times, with objects of a different sort (a pen with a word processor), though many, of course, are not. Some objects are viewed as "violable"14 or lacking in boundary-integrity, though certainly not all: We will allow a child to break and destroy relatively few things in the house. In any case, we can see on the list a cluster of familiar attitudes to things, all of which seem to play a role in the feminist account of the objectification of persons. Should we say that each is a sufficient condition for the objectification Objectification 389 of persons? Or do we need some cluster of the features, in order to have a sufficient condition? On the whole, it seems to me that "objectification" is a relatively loose cluster-term, for whose application we sometimes treat any one of these features as sufficient, though more often a plurality of features is present when the term is applied. Clearly there are other ways we standardly treat things-touching them, seeing them-that do not suggest objectification when we apply the same mode of treatment to persons, so we have some reason to think that these seven items are at least signposts of what many have found morally problematic. This suggests that they may be of special interest to us in what follows, suggesting that we are going to be at least as interested in the treatment that is denied to persons as in the treatment that is accorded them. It will be helpful to turn, first, to two examples from the thing-world: a ballpoint pen, and a Monet painting. The way in which a ballpoint pen is an object involves, it would seem, all the items on this list, with the possible exception of violability. Certainly it seems that to treat the pen as a tool, as nonautonomous, as inert, as fungible (with other pens and at times with other instruments or machines), as owned, and as lacking in subjectivity-all this is exactly the standard and appropriate way to treat it. Some objects are precious objects, and these will usually lack fungibility and possess some boundaryintegrity (inviolability). We see from the case of the painting that lack of autonomy does not necessarily imply instrumentality, though treating as instrumental may well imply treating as nonautonomous; the fact that most objects are inert should not conceal from us, for our later purposes, the fact that inertness is not a necessary 390 Martha C. Precisely what is useful about my word processor, what makes it such a good tool for my purposes, is that it is not inert. As for violability, it is not entailed, it would seem, by any of the other six items. Even fungible items are not generally regarded as all right to break or smash, though the ones that are all right to smash are usually of the fungible sort, perhaps because it seems clear that they can be replaced by others of the kind. Again, the fact that most objects are owned should not conceal from us the fact that ownership is not entailed by any of the other items on the list. Not violability, not inertness, and probably not instrumentality, as our attitudes to household pets and even plants show us clearly. Finally, a thing may be treated as something whose experiences and feelings need not be taken into account without being treated as a mere tool, without being treated as fungible, without being seen as violable- all these are shown in the Monet painting case; also, without being seen as owned (the Grand Canyon, the Mojave Desert), and, it seems clear, without being seen as inert (my word processor). If one treats an object as something whose feelings and experiences need not be taken into account, is that consistent with treating as autonomous? In fact, what we are discovering is that autonomy is in a certain sense the most exigent of the notions on our list. It seems difficult if not impossible to imagine a case in which an inanimate object is treated as autonomous, though we can certainly imagine exceptions to all the others. And treating an item as autonomous seems to entail treating it as noninstrumental, as not simply inert, as not owned, and as not something whose feelings need not be taken into account.

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This compact is made and entered into by and between the participating member states which enact this compact chronic pain treatment uk discount imdur 20 mg visa, hereinafter called party states abdominal pain treatment guidelines buy imdur 40 mg online. For the purpose of this agreement allied pain treatment center oh 40 mg imdur with amex, the term "states" is taken to mean the several states heel pain treatment exercises 20 mg imdur fast delivery, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of 450 P a g e Public Health Laws of Alabama, 2012 Columbia, and all U. The purpose of this compact is to provide for mutual assistance between the states entering into this compact in managing any emergency or disaster that is duly declared by the governor of the affected state or states, whether arising from natural disaster, technological hazard, man-made disaster, civil emergency aspects of resources shortages, community disorders, insurgency, or enemy attack. The compact shall also provide for mutual cooperation in emergency-related exercises, testing, or other training activities using equipment and personnel simulating performance of any aspect of the giving and receiving of aid by party states or subdivisions of party states during emergencies, such actions occurring outside actual declared emergency periods. Each party entering into this compact recognizes many emergencies transcend political jurisdictional boundaries and that intergovernmental coordination is essential in managing these and other emergencies under this compact. Each state further recognizes that there will be emergencies which require immediate access and present procedures to apply outside resources to make a prompt and effective response to such an emergency. This is because few, if any, individual states have all the resources they may need in all types of emergencies or the capability of delivering resources to areas where emergencies exist. The prompt, full, and effective utilization of resources of the participating states, including any resources on hand or available from the federal government, that are essential to the safety, care, and welfare of the people in the event of any emergencies or disaster declared by a party state, shall be the underlying principle on which all articles of this compact shall be understood. On behalf of the governor of each state participating in the compact, the legally designated state official who is assigned responsibility for emergency management will be responsible for formulation of appropriate interstate mutual aid plans and procedures necessary to implement this compact. In formulating such plans, and in carrying them out, the party states, insofar as practical, shall: (1) Review individual state hazards analyses and, to the extent reasonably possible, determine all those potential emergencies the party states might jointly suffer, whether due to natural disaster, 451 P a g e Public Health Laws of Alabama, 2012 technological hazard, man-made disaster, emergency aspects of resource shortages, civil disorders, insurgency, or enemy attack. The provisions of this agreement shall only apply to requests for assistance made by and to authorized representatives. If verbal, the request shall be confirmed in writing within 30 days of the verbal request. Requests shall provide the following information: (1) A description of the emergency service function for which assistance is needed, such as but not limited to fire services, law enforcement, emergency medical, transportation, communications, public works and engineering, building inspection, planning and information assistance, mass care, resource support, health and medical services, and search and rescue. Any party state requested to render mutual aid or conduct exercises and training for mutual aid shall take action as is necessary to provide and make available the resources covered by this compact in accordance with the terms hereof. It is understood that the state rendering aid may withhold resources to the extent necessary to provide reasonable protection for the state. Each party state shall afford to the emergency forces of any party state, while operating within its state limits under the terms and conditions of this compact, the same powers (except that of 452 P a g e Public Health Laws of Alabama, 2012 arrest unless specifically authorized by the receiving states), duties, rights, and privileges as are afforded forces of the state in which they are performing emergency services. Emergency forces will continue under the command and control of their regular leaders, but the organizational units shall come under the operational control of the emergency services authorities of the state receiving assistance. These conditions may be activated, as needed, only subsequent to a declaration of a state of emergency or disaster by the governor of the party state that is to receive assistance or commencement of exercises or training for mutual aid and shall continue so long as the exercises or training for mutual aid are in progress, the state of emergency or disaster remains in effect, or loaned resources remain in the receiving state or states, whichever is longer. Whenever any person holds a license, certificate, or other permit issued by any state party to the compact evidencing the meeting of qualifications for professional, mechanical, or other skills, and when assistance is requested by the receiving party state, the person shall be deemed licensed, certified, or permitted by the state requesting assistance to render aid involving the skill to meet a declared emergency or disaster, subject to limitations and conditions as the governor of the requesting state may prescribe by executive order or otherwise. Officers or employees of a party state rendering aid in another state pursuant to this compact shall be considered agents of the requesting state for tort liability and immunity purposes. Inasmuch as it is probable that the pattern and detail of the machinery for mutual aid among two or more states may differ from that among the states that are party hereto, this instrument contains elements of a broad base common to all states, and nothing herein contained shall preclude any state from entering into supplementary agreements with another state or affect any other agreements already in force between states. Supplementary agreements may comprehend, but shall not be limited to , provisions for evacuation and reception of injured and other persons and the exchange of medical, fire, police, reconnaissance, welfare, transportation and communications personnel, and equipment and supplies. Each party shall provide for the payment of compensation and death benefits to injured members of the emergency forces of that state and representatives of deceased members of the forces in case members sustain injuries or are killed while rendering aid pursuant to this compact, in the same manner and on the same terms as if the injury or death were sustained within their own state. Any party state rendering aid in another state pursuant to this compact shall be reimbursed by the party state receiving the aid for any loss or damage to or expense incurred in the operation of any equipment and the provision of any service in answering a request for aid and for the costs incurred in connection with such requests. Any aiding party state may assume in whole or in part loss, damage, expense, or other cost, or may loan equipment or donate services to the receiving party state without charge or cost, provided further, that any two or more party states may enter into supplementary agreements establishing a different allocation of costs among those states. Plans for the orderly evacuation and interstate reception of portions of the civilian population as the result of any emergency or disaster of sufficient proportions to so warrant shall be worked out and maintained between the party states and the emergency management/services directors of the various jurisdictions where any type of incident requiring evacuations might occur. Such plans shall be put into effect by request of the state from which evacuees come and shall include the manner of transporting evacuees, the number of evacuees to be received in different areas, the manner in which food, clothing, housing, and medical care will be provided, the registration of the evacuees, the providing of facilities for the notification of relatives or friends, and the forwarding of the evacuees to other areas or the bringing in of additional materials, supplies, and all other relevant factors. The plans shall provide that the party state receiving evacuees and the party state from which the evacuees come shall mutually agree as to reimbursement of out-ofpocket expenses incurred in receiving and caring for the evacuees, for expenditures for transportation, food, clothing, medicines and medical care, and like items. The expenditures shall be reimbursed as agreed by the party state from which the evacuees come. After the termination of the emergency or disaster, the party state from which the evacuees come shall assure the responsibility for the ultimate support of repatriation of such evacuees.

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Twelve sets of twelve coloured envelopes (in gradually larger sizes) were distributed to twelve of the thirty participants pain treatment in hindi cheap imdur 40mg overnight delivery. Inside each envelope was 155 a rt i f i c i a l h e l l s a description of the key components of the event: from schedule pain medication for dogs ibuprofen proven imdur 40 mg, setting and weather to audience reaction acute chest pain treatment guidelines order 20 mg imdur amex, meaning and interpretation pain treatment hypnosis order imdur without a prescription. While all this was going on, three of the organisers crossed the field and wandered into the woods on the other side. The bleak similarity of the images is amusing, but drives home his point that secondary material such as photographs, instructions, descriptions and participant recollections have a completely separate aesthetic reality to the action itself. The participants were notified that everyone attending would have to be a participant; those who were not willing were advised not to come. The action took place in a snowy field, and was organised around a flat board with dozens of nails with bobbins, each wound with 200­300 metres of white thread. The assignment was for the ten participants to walk away from the board in different directions towards the forest that surrounded the field, while holding onto the end of the thread that had been given to Collective Actions Group, Pictures, 1979 157 a rt i f i c i a l h e l l s Collective Actions Group, Ten Appearances, 1981 Collective Actions Group, Ten Appearances, 1981 each of them. Eight of them walked back out of the forest to rejoin the organisers; two did not return and got 158 the social under socialism a train back to Moscow. Those who returned were given a photograph of themselves emerging from the forest, captioned `The appearance of [name] on the first of February, 1981. Since it was near impossible to scrutinise the events as they were happening, these hermeneutical efforts had a compensatory aspect, endlessly chasing a meaning that remained elusive, precisely because the generation of different interpretative positions was the meaning. Later volumes also include interviews and a list of videos, produced after Sabine Hдnsgen joined the group from Germany. Groys has argued that Soviet society, by contrast, 159 a rt i f i c i a l h e l l s was a society of production without consumption. So the role of Collective Actions and some other artists of the time was to create the possibility of consumption, the possibility of an external position from which one could enjoy communism. The result was a privatised liberal space that existed in covert parallel to official social structures. The most remarkable thing, however, was that those who led us had no goals either! Group until it had achieved complete materiality, or, one might say, tangibility ­ if this notion is at all applicable to something absolutely ethereal and elusive. Against Dissidence Participatory art under state socialism in the 1960s and 1970s provides an important counter-model to contemporaneous examples from Europe and North America. Rather than aspiring to create a participatory public sphere as the counterpoint to a privatised world of individual affect and consumption, artists seeking to work collaboratively under socialism sought to provide a space for nurturing individualism (of behaviour, actions, interpretations) against an oppressively monolithic cultural sphere in which artistic judgements were reduced to a question of their position within Marxist-Leninist dogma. This led to a situation in which most artists wanted nothing to do with politics ­ and indeed even rejected the dissident position ­ by choosing to operate, instead, on an existential plane: making assertions of individual freedom, even in the slightest or most silent of forms. It was, rather, a means of experiencing a more authentic (because individual and self-organised) mode of collective experience than the one prescribed by the state in official parades and mass spectacles; as such it frequently takes escapist or celebratory forms. Today these terms elicit criticism in contemporary art writing, signifying a wilful refusal of artists to engage in their political reality and express a critical stance towards it. But this judgement also signifies the paucity of our ability to defend the intrinsic value of artistic experiences today. In a society where equality is repressively enforced, artistic expressions of individual liberty come to the fore. The reality of daily life under these regimes necessitates a more sober understanding of the artistic gestures achieved there, and appreciation of the consummate subtlety with which so many of them were undertaken. When the library requested that he return the book, Latham did so ­ but as a vial of chewedup pages. To this end, Steveni and Latham organised placements or residencies for British artists in a range of private corporations and public bodies. Steveni recounts that the original idea for such an organisation was her initiative. She realised that it might be more socially useful for artists to work inside these factories rather than to use the materials abandoned outside them. The idea was given further momentum when Steveni was invited by Frank Martin to give a lecture at St Martins on the role of the artist in society, and to do a weekly questionnaire on this topic with the students. Rather, they seek to have an artist involved in the day-to-day work of an organisation. These may vary from contributions to the creation of some concrete object to new ideas about work methods. The third phase was an exhibition, although this was not viewed as necessary or essential to the placement.

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Identified as the lookout for a robbery that resulted in the shooting death of a Harlem drugstore owner herbal treatment for shingles pain cheap imdur online visa, it soon becomes clear that whether he is found guilty or innocent allied pain treatment center inc buy cheap imdur 40 mg, Steve is a pawn in a system filled with cynical authority figures cape fear pain treatment center dr gootman purchase 20 mg imdur fast delivery, biased jurors pain medication for dogs with hip dysplasia buy 40mg imdur amex, and unscrupulous inmate "snitches. A bright and aspiring filmmaker in his high school, Steve uses his talents to transcribe the events of his trial into a script-as a way to try to make sense of what is happening and to cope with his spiraling emotions. The trauma of the trial has blurred his sense of reality until he can no longer sort out what is real or true, or who he really is. This is a novel about betrayal, hope and promise lost, reflections on ones past and future; and captures real emotions in a genuine way (a big plus for teachers working with high school aged boys who tend to cover their inner lives with bravado and tough talk); and can provide a means to launch conversations about gender-role stereotypes for boys and expectations society has for Black youth. Students should examine themes like peer pressure, how we make personal choices, integrity, different degrees of guilt, why good kids get into trouble and what happens to incarcerated youth jailed with hardened criminals. The author raises many questions about what is right and wrong, what makes someone a monster, and whether you are only guilty if you commit the crime. The dialogue contains profanity and there are scenes of implied violent and sexual content (gang initiation, sexual assault, murder), and thoughts of suicide. Students may be interested to learn that the author wrote about lives and incidents that reflected his own experiences and often stated that his goal was to make young people stop and think about their choices. Consider this book as a jumping-off point to help students learn to read and write a screenplay-it reads like a play script, and students may need help becoming familiar with the abbreviations and format (though the text itself is not difficult and is recommended for reluctant readers). Also available in electronic and audio formats, but it is suggested that teachers choose the written version (perhaps using the audio format to reinforce reading for students who have poor literacy skills). In this first and most frequently read of his three autobiographies, Douglass provides graphic descriptions of the deprivation and physical abuse of his childhood, the horrifying experiences and tragedy he endured as a slave, and his dramatic escape to the North and eventual freedom. His life is all the more remarkable in that he overcame these obstacles and went on to become an impassioned abolitionist, brilliant writer, newspaper editor and eloquent orator whose speeches fired the abolitionist cause until his death in 1895 at almost 80 years of age. Since few slaves of the period could write, Douglass published this account in 1845 to satisfy those who doubted his origins. Mullin Page 135 Student Literature Grades 9-12 slavery disturbing though all but the most sheltered should be familiar with the practices described: separation of families, beatings, rapes, various forms of degradation and loss, lack of rights to marry or keep your children, etc. Excerpts may be used to augment curriculum-based discussions about the rights of the disabled, issues of medical ethics, and social constructs of identity and normality. This text raises the question: Must children born with socially challenging anatomies have their bodies changed because others cannot be expected to change their minds? The text views conjoined twins and other congenital anomalies from viewpoint of people living with them. The author posits that anatomy matters because the senses we possess, the muscles we control, and the resources we require to keep our bodies alive, limit and guide what we experience. Some portions of this text are quite graphic and include illustrations may be disturbing to some readers, or deemed inappropriate in some settings. Born a generation apart, Mariam and Laila are polar opposites: Mariam is shy, subservient, naive to a fault, honest, and filled with self-doubt; Laila is beautiful, smart and kind and has very different ideas about love, family, and expectations for her future. With equal measure of despair and hope, they nevertheless form an unlikely bond that makes them both sisters and motherdaughter to each other, a process which changes the course of their own lives and those of the next generation. The book not only highlights aspects of Afghani culture and the plight of women in that society, it also shines a light on © Nancy L. Mullin Page 136 Student Literature Grades 9-12 Western prejudices, issues of misogyny that transcend culture and religion, entitlement and misunderstanding, the importance of resistance, the struggle for power between politics and religion, what happens when gender becomes politicized. This book contains descriptions of violence against women (beatings, rapes, and death) and should be screened by adults to determine its appropriateness for your students. Many of her poems center around motherhood, family, death and mourning, nature, life on the reservation and also forlorn small towns; social misfits play prominently in her works. The title comes from her view of the life force that sustains us (soul or "original fire") and she often grapples with both Native American and Christian beliefs and the friction between them. Her poems include both sensuous and bawdy references and portray a wide range of emotions. In this slightly uneven collection of unorthodox poems (many are prose-like, some are rants, others clichйd, but some are insightful, inspiring, nuanced, and include great metaphors and descriptions) teens written and recorded words are used to explore their views and feelings about race, relationships, family and community, drugs, abuse, homelessness, and self-image.

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Finally bayhealth pain treatment center dover de effective 40mg imdur, the actual implementation of evidence-based policies is crucial for success pain swallowing treatment purchase cheap imdur on line. Fidelity can involve many things-including adequate training in the program-but it also requires a change in culture among on-the-group correctional staff foot pain tendonitis treatment imdur 20 mg otc, from one of surveillance and control to a more supportive and therapeutic approach in aid of the reentry process kidney pain after treatment for uti purchase imdur american express. Taxman, Implementing a Reentry Framework at a Correctional Facility: Challenges to the Culture, 50 J. Tonry makes a number of recommendations on this front, such as allowing judges to make decisions on a case-by-case basis and establishing presumptive sentencing guidelines to help channel the process and any appellate review. In recent years, "tough on crime" has not been at the forefront of political discussions as it was in the 1980s and 1990s, giving more opportunity for policies and practices that would have stalled decades ago. Of course, historically low crime rates have facilitated this discussion, and interest may wane if crime rates start climbing. But the development and use of risk and need instruments have helped criminal justice decision-makers make the most informed decisions about potential alternatives to incarceration. Given mounting support for reentry reform, the timing seemed right for efforts such as ban the box and housing changes. With support from the public as well as public leadership at the top federal levels. Moreover, few legislative changes to sentencing practices have had large impacts on reducing the prison population. Although some states have trimmed populations, many new policies have simply moved savings from one part of the justice system to benefit another sector. Researchers in the field need to continue their efforts to provide information about best practices to policymakers and practitioners in a usable fashion. Too often, the translation from research to policy lacks clarity and specificity, leading to frustration on the ground as practitioners try to implement effective programs. Reentry 369 Despite progress on understanding reentry, we need more and better information on how best to reduce the prison population, to assist those returning to their communities, and to contain costs of the $80 billion justice system in the United States. This chapter has laid out a number of challenges and potential solutions, but it has not delved into what some see as deep structural barriers in the U. As Gottschalk notes, "Many champions of reentry portray successful reentry largely as a matter of helping ex-offenders acquire the right individual skills to become employable. They ignore or downplay the enormous structural obstacles that stand between ex-offenders and full economic, political and social membership in the United States. Recognizing reentry is a process, make sure that reentry efforts are integrated between incarceration and community phases. Acknowledging that research has helped highlight effective program practices, make sure that reentry programs are evidence-based, implemented with fidelity, and subject to rigorous evaluation. Knowing that the vast majority of prisoners will eventually leave prison, continue to work to change the culture, both within the prison and the community about their status-they, like us, are members of our communities. Chin* For many people convicted of crime, the greatest effect will not be imprisonment, but being marked as a criminal and subjected to collateral consequences. Consequences can include loss of civil rights, public benefits, and ineligibility for employment, licenses, and permits. The United States, the 50 states, and their agencies and subdivisions impose collateral consequences-often applicable for life-based on convictions from any jurisdiction. Collateral consequences are so numerous and scattered as to be virtually uncountable. In recent years, the American Law Institute, American Bar Association, and Uniform Law Commission all have proposed reforms. Collateral consequences should be: (1) collected and published, so that defendants, lawyers, judges and policymakers can know what they are; (2) incorporated into counseling, plea bargaining, sentencing and other aspects of the criminal process; (3) subject to relief so that individuals can pursue law-abiding lives, and regain equal status; and (4) limited to those that evidence shows reasonably promote public safety. Less well understood, however, is that people with criminal convictions face a network of additional legal effects, known as collateral consequences. Professor of Law, University of California, Davis School of Law; founding board member, Collateral Consequences Resource Center ccresourcecenter.

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