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The process of centralised decision-making requires Japanese expatriates to be in place to interpret correctly the decisions made at Head Office antibiotics for dogs cost order noroxin 400 mg mastercard. Core workers in large organisations continue to have this guarantee but over 90% of companies in a recent survey indicated their intention to start removing this guarantee antibiotics to treat lyme disease purchase noroxin 400 mg line. An estimate is made that only 30% of new employees receive a lifetime guarantee (Brewster and Tyson 1991) antibiotic eye drops pregnancy discount noroxin online amex. Due to the decline in internal demand antibiotics for sinus infection australia purchase cheap noroxin on-line, there is also a growing policy of encouraging early retirement and voluntary redundancy. Forty one per cent of companies have programmes for transferring employees to related firms, sometimes losing their major benefits in the transfer or reducing their hours or schemes to encourage employees to set up their own businesses. These processes (and the associated reduction of new hirings) have added to the growing unemployment rate which reached over 4% by 1999. A prime example of this policy was the announcement Chapter 12 An international perspective 465 in October 1999 by Nissan car company that it would close five plants in Japan as part of a major rescue plant to prevent further escalation in losses, but at the expense of more than 15,000 job losses. The overt policy stated by government, management and unions is to employ more female employees but this is not a general indication of equal opportunities. In practice, this policy is working as a means of segregating male and female workers. Females go into the general staff group while the executive candidates group is almost entirely made up of men. Further more, the general staff group is increasingly being filled with temporary or agency staff, often provided by an associated company and at lower pay than for permanent employees. The position of women still continue to be seen as the helpers of men, making tea and doing typing. This helps to explain the recent high-profile legal suits against Japanese companies in America for sexual harassment and discrimination where multi-million pound settlements have been reached. For example, the employment of agency staff used to be restricted to only a handful of job categories, such as catering and administration. This has now been extended and complete restrictions are likely to be lifted within the next few years. The restrictions on the employment of women for health and safety reasons, such as in night work, have also been lifted. Government regulations on the length of the working week are also in the process of being weakened. The overall outcome is that there is an increase in the flexibility of the workforce but one that appears to be achieved through the elimination of longer-term benefits and rights of the employees. There are other areas of Japanese culture which continue to be successful with little change. Kaisen, the process of encouraging staff to contribute ideas on incremental improvements, has been copied throughout the world. Similarly, the emphasis on quality, just-in-time and team working have been replicated in all industrial countries. Although the number contracted in this way is small, Toyota is planning to hire more professionals in newly developed business fields such as communication equipment, aerospace vehicles and new transportation systems. By 2010, it is expected that fixed term contract employees will rise to 30% of the workforce. Operating many of these values in the work place had led to inefficiencies and corruption. Many managers are simply used to follow the orders so find it difficult to use their own initiative while major change programmes, especially those including redundancies, face severe obstacles Chapter 12 An international perspective 467 in acceptance and implementation. Changing to Western-style employment relationships, therefore, remains a major step, although evidence is growing that Western practices, such as psychological testing and using references, are growing, especially in joint ventures. Now they want to reduce dependency on low-cost labour by raising added value and building human and intellectual capital. Where there is a greater pull factor from the local environment, (measured by longer time period of establishment in that locality), the practices tend to show a traditional flavour, such as provision for employee housing, consideration of the educational background for hiring managers and referrals.

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In either case antibiotics for acne and ibs generic 400 mg noroxin, it is all too easy to opt for recruitment without first thinking through all the alternatives that could be considered antibiotic used for bladder infection purchase noroxin 400 mg with amex, especially as substantial savings can be made by not recruiting or replacing antibiotic honey noroxin 400mg visa. Here are some alternatives: Doing away with the work altogether Although less likely in these competitive times antibiotics safe while breastfeeding buy generic noroxin pills, there are still some positions where the work carried out adds insufficient value to the organisation to justify a replacement. This may come about through the changing nature of the business, a reduction in the activity that this position services or simply because the job was created in the first place without sufficient thought or justification. The arrival of business process re-organisation has often, through a thorough and detailed examination of each business process, weeded out jobs where the main function may be to process figures or write reports that are no longer required. Automate the work the number of employees working in manufacturing industries has drastically reduced over the last 30 years as their work has been replaced with new technology. The latest industrial revolution is in the offices where computer developments have rapidly changed the face of communications and information processing. Although it is seldom possible to replace one employee through mechanisation, the arrival of a vacancy can present the opportunity for a re-think of the work structure. Contract-out the work Sub-contracting (or outsourcing, as it is more commonly called today) is becoming more frequent at all levels. Employers are seeing the advantages of avoiding employment costs and making overall savings, Chapter 4 Recruitment 119 especially where the work is put out to competitive tender. The work can be contracted to a specialist organisation, such as a facilities maintenance company, or to an agency which will deal with a large number of unskilled or semi-skilled operations and who will recruit, train and supervise the staff themselves. Re-organising the work this can take the form of replacing the post by separating different parts of the work, eliminating those that are unnecessary and farming out the rest within the department or even to other departments. It can also take the form of job enrichment, which is to extend the work of existing employees to cover more responsibility and decision making. An example of how this was carried out for airline reservation clerks is given in Parker and Wall (1998). Additional sources dealing with this important area are shown in Further Reading at the end of the chapter. Re-organising the hours It may be possible for other members of staff to work overtime to carry out the work, especially if it can be shown that it does not justify a fulltime post. This has the advantages of avoiding the recruitment exercise and providing additional salary for those staff willing to work the overtime. It is not, though, a recommended viable long-term alternative as overtime costs are high and it can help to create an overtime culture where work is extended simply to justify working overtime. A second alternative is to re-jig the shift system to partly increase the overall hours or to spread out the work in a more even way. Finally, the post can be converted into a part-time position that should bring cost savings and also allow a degree of flexibility should the volume of work increase in the future. This is carried out in three stages which will be looked at separately: Investigating the nature of the work and its key features. Agreeing a summary of the job and the nature of the person who will best fit the post. This means drawing up a Job description (or, in some cases, a Job profile) and a Person specification. Alternatively, a competency profile can be drawn up which will define the nature of the job and the competencies required to carry out that job efficiently. If competencies are used, they will be part of a wider competency framework in use in the organisation. Deciding on the terms and conditions of the post, including hours of work, salary and benefits. Job analysis Purpose of job analysis Analysing jobs is central to the people management process. Job analysis can take place in a number of situations, all of which are associated with organisational change. In the event of a merger or takeover, it is not uncommon for an analysis of some of the critical jobs to be commissioned to see if changes need to be made in the light of the new business imperatives. When a major expansion takes place and many more staff are required for one or two posts, job analysis may take place to correctly define the posts for recruitment purposes or to re-design them so there is greater efficiency.

Developments in the systematic approach to recruitment and selection 205 antimicrobial gauze generic 400 mg noroxin fast delivery,с Who do we want? At the same time antimicrobial wound cream cheap noroxin master card, it provides an opportunity to consider options other than recruitment and selection treatment for dogs coughing and gagging buy noroxin discount, for example: to debate the potential for restructuring workloads/departments and redeploying existing staff; usp 51 antimicrobial effectiveness test noroxin 400mg with amex,уи to delay or eliminate expenditure on staffing and recruitment budgets. This enables the recruiter to know exactly what the purpose, duties and responsibilities of the vacant position will be and its location within the organisation structure. The next step involves drawing up a person specification that is based on the job description, and which identifies the personal characteristics required to perform the job adequately. Characteristics are usually described within a framework consisting of a number of broad headings. Two frequently cited frameworks are the seven-point plan (Rodger, 1952) and the five-fold grading system (Munro Fraser, 1954), illustrated in Table 6. Both frameworks are somewhat dated now, and some headings can appear to be potentially discriminatory. The person specification is a vital part of the recruitment and selection process as it can form the basis of the recruitment advertisement, it can help determine the most effective selection methods and, if applied correctly, can ensure that selection decisions are based on sound, justifiable criteria. Predetermined criteria can contribute to effective recruitment and selection only if full consideration has been given to the necessity and fairness of all the requirements. Preconceived or entrenched attitudes, prejudices and assumptions can lead, consciously or unconsciously, to requirements that are less jobrelated than aimed at meeting the assumed needs of customers, colleagues or the established culture of the organisation. Examples of this might include insistence on a British education, unnecessary age restrictions, or sex role stereotyping. The job-based approach to recruitment and selection can be inflexible in a number of ways. For example, the job description may fail to reflect potential changes in the key tasks or the list of duties and responsibilities may be too constraining, especially where teamworking is introduced. This concentration on a specific job and its place in a bureaucratic structure may be detrimental to the development of the skills and aptitudes needed for the long-term benefit of the organisation. In order to accommodate the need for greater flexibility and the desire to encourage working,Дтbeyond contract,Дф, some organisations have replaced traditional job descriptions with more generic and concise job profiles, consisting of a list of,Дтbullet points,Дф or accountability statements. The recognition that jobs can be subject to frequent change can also reduce the importance of the job description and increase the relative importance of getting the,Дтright,Дф person. Recent research into call centre recruitment and selection found that a positive attitude was more important in candidates than their ability to use a keyboard (Callaghan and Thompson, 2002). In many instances, a combination of the job-oriented and personoriented approaches may be adopted, in order to recruit people who can not only do the job but also contribute to the wider business goals of the organisation. The term has many definitions but most refer to ,Дтthe work-related personal attributes, knowledge, experience, skills and values that a person draws on to perform their work well,Дф (Roberts, 1997: 6). Competency-based recruitment and selection involves the identification of a set of competencies that are seen as important across the organisation, such as planning and organising, managing relationships, gathering and analysing information, and decision-making. Each competency can then be divided into a number of different levels, and these can be matched to the requirements of a particular job. Feltham (in Boam and Sparrow 1992) argues that a competency-based approach can contribute to the effectiveness of recruitment and selection in three main ways: the process of competency analysis helps an organisation to identify what it needs from its human resources and to specify the part that selection and recruitment can play;,уи the implementation of competency-based recruitment and selection systems results in a number of direct practical benefits; and,уи where systems are linked to competencies, aspects of fairness, effectiveness and validity become amenable to evaluation. These competence frameworks can be used for more than just recruitment and selection. What a competency-based approach may discover is that recruitment is not always the answer. There is usually a variety of strategies for achieving a particular competency mix and no,Дтright,Дф solutions. For example, if specialist skills are scarce, an organisation may choose to replace the skills with new technology, train existing staff, or hire specialist consultants when needed in preference to employment of permanent staff (Feltham, 1992). Where recruitment and selection is deemed appropriate, a competency-based approach achieves a visible set of agreed standards which can form the basis of systematic, fair and consistent decisionmaking. There is a case for deciding the salary band (if not the specific amount) and other elements of the reward package before attracting candidates. This can take time (for example, if the position has to be processed through a job evaluation exercise), but potential candidates may fail to apply without some indication of the reward offered, as this often gives an indication of the level and status of the position. The alternative is to wait and see who applies and then negotiate terms and conditions with the favoured candidate. This is a less restrictive approach, and may provide a better chance of employing high-calibre people who match the long-term aims of the organisation.

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Economic reforms in China have allowed the influx of foreign interests bacteria 02 micron buy noroxin online now, and have set a new context in which both indigenous Chinese and foreign invested companies manage the employment relationship antibiotic x-206 order noroxin 400mg with visa. The Asian model has been characterised by: non-adversarial relationships; low union density antibiotic resistance by area 400mg noroxin overnight delivery, or unions (as in China) that are closely controlled by the state; and low instances of overt industrial conflict win32 cryptor virus buy noroxin 400 mg visa. Part of the remit of this section is to explore the extent to which employment systems in China are becoming more,ДтWesternised,Дф. It attaches importance to systematic recruitment and selection, training and development (including socialisation into corporate culture), close attention to motivation through personal involvement and participation in work and its organisation, appraisal and progression procedures and incentive schemes. Part of this was related to the fact that both of these companies were relatively small, and had strong connections with foreign companies via joint ventures or contracting arrangements. They also suggested positive relationships between performance-based rewards, individual performance appraisal and organisa- 690 Chapter 17 ¬ Human resource management in Asia tional performance. The employment contract system was formally implemented in 1986, and it gave employers the ability to hire employees on contracts that specified the terms of employment. Under this system, enterprises were able to downsize and remove problematic employees (Ding and Warner, 1999). The drive to modernise the labour market was further progressed by the provision of subsequent legislation such as the personnel legislation of 1992 and the 1994 Labour Law. The collective contracts would cover employees belonging to an enterprise, and would be arranged via the trade union. Collective contracts would cover areas such as pay and conditions, working hours, holidays and welfare (Ding and Warner, 1999: 249). As highlighted above, one outcome of the reform programme has been that a substantial number of redundancies have been made. Prior to the economic reforms, the enterprise took responsibility for welfare issues such as pensions and medical cover. The funds for social insurance are contributed to by the state, the enterprise and individual employees (Ding and Warner, 1999). Social insurance is designed to act as a safety net, particularly for employees who are made redundant. One of the issues that China will have to deal with is the rising cost of social insurance (Montagnon, 1999a). For example, the cost of moving towards a fully funded pension system by 2030 could reach Rmb 3000 billion (Thornhill, 2002a). In conjunction with this is the fear of further social unrest resulting from mass redundancies (Mok et al. This often meant that workers were assigned even when they did not hold the requisite skill and knowledge for the job. While there is the possibility for greater labour mobility now, evidence suggests that mobility remains fairly low, especially in the shopfloor workers category (Tsang, 1994; Ding and Warner, 1999; Benson et al. Zhu and Dowling (2002) have suggested that recruitment and selection practices were becoming less influenced by political bureaucracy and more influenced by economic and market concerns. For example, there is more emphasis upon personal competency as a criteria, rather than an individual,Дфs political background. Overall, China has a large pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour from which to draw, but there is a dearth of managerial employees and engineers with the skills and knowledge that modern industry and commerce require (Ding and Warner, 1999). First, education and development were severely disrupted during the Cultural Revolution; for example, management development and training were banned during this period. The lack of effective training and development meant that there was a lack of educated managers and engineers, and the legacy of this still remains today. Second, the speed of economic development in China has meant that there is a great demand for educated, skilled staff. The state has responded by encouraging the development of an infrastructure for management development and training (Child, 1994). Training and development issues are likely to remain as continuing concerns for the future within China (Glover and Siu, 1999). The seniority-based flat rate system is now being replaced by systems that often have some link to performance. Wages were determined by legislation and regional agencies until the mid-1980s, and seniority was the most important factor in terms of employee earnings, but other aspects were entering the equation by the mid-1990s.

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