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Phrases such as "must be told muscle relaxant for headache discount 60 caps shallaki fast delivery," "must be aware spasms gallbladder buy shallaki australia," or "must be educated" imply that stakeholders are there to be told about what matters and why muscle relaxant creams over the counter order shallaki online from canada. Yet as Pearson and Sullivan note spasms symptoms purchase shallaki on line amex, "It must always be borne in mind that ultimately there can only be one valid reason for conserving heritage places: They are valued by elements of a community, by a whole community or by society as a whole" (Pearson and Sullivan 1995: 17). The articulation of the values of stakeholders, and involving them in site management, is increasingly being recognized as an essential rather than an optional part of heritage management (Clark 2001a). Site management planning itself is, of course, nothing new; it has been in existence since at least 1910, when there was a call for complete and comprehensive plans for U. One reason why it is necessary to engage stakeholders in site management is that the basic documents, which set out why the site is protected (for example, entry into a register or schedule), often do not (and by definition probably can not) contain all the information needed to make decisions about a site. For example, at Chaco Canyon, a variety of different stakeholder values have to be taken into consideration: those of the Navajo groups associated with the site; the different values of the Pueblo groups, who retain strong affiliations; and the New Age spiritualists, who have their own perception of what matters. Any management strategy has to be sensitive to these values, whatever is set out in the initial park mandate. This distinction between the relatively narrow range of values which justify inscription or designation (for example, as a park) and the wider penumbra of 110 Reading 17 clark values which successful site management must address is commonplace. Those wider values include the value of other types of heritage asset (for example, ecology, geology, and buildings) or the values of the huge variety of stakeholders. The various different value-led approaches recognize this need for multiple values by ensuring that the management process includes an exploration of the wider values needed to manage a site in addition to the core values for which it is designated. The distinction between the two is precisely why the management process often requires a greater and more explicit exploration of significance than is defined at the point of protection. Not only do site managers need to deal with a wider range of values than those for which the site has been protected, they also have to face up to the fact that much of site management is about managing conflicting values. In the example of Chaco Canyon, there is a desire by New Agers to have their ashes scattered at the site, which in turn can offend the sensibilities of traditional groups. The site manager has to find a way of reconciling values, which in this case has meant closing areas of the site. Almost every decision a heritage site manager faces involves some element of conflicting or at least different values. Access for wheel-chair users is a particularly good example of this; it is entirely reasonable that heritage sites protected through public subsidy are accessible to as many people as possible, and yet the provision of some forms of access can be detrimental to those values for which the site was originally protected. No heritage manager wants to prevent access, but their job is to provide it in a way which ideally respects both the need for access and the other qualities of the site. The value-led planning process can be used to anticipate this type of conflict and to begin to help resolve it. By articulating the full range of values for the site, potential conflicts can be identified, and the assessment of vulnerability is a useful opportunity to explore how, for example, respecting one value can make another vulnerable. It is forcing cultural heritage practitioners to work more closely on other types of cultural heritage (such as buildings, objects, and landscapes) and with other conservation practitioners (for example, in ecology). More importantly, practitioners are having to learn to work more closely with stakeholders who have an interest in sites if sites are to be managed sustainably. A reading of older style plans suggests that many take the significance of the site at face value 111 Part I history or assume that it is too well known to need more than a brief reiteration. They usually proceed from a restatement of the organizational objectives into a series of management actions, again on the assumption that significance is known. It is my own view that this is not value-led planning in the sense that there is an explicit articulation of significance within (and driving) the planning process. The Role of Archaeology in Value-Based Management the question for archaeologists is, what, if any, role should they be playing in this whole process of conservation planning or value-led management. Value-led planning methods are used on all sorts of sites, including urban areas, buildings, and collections. Is there any reason why archaeologists should be involved in conservation management planning on sites which do not involve buried remains While I was writing this article, debate was raging over the future of Mount Orgueil Castle in Jersey. The significance of the castle as a whole was not in question; the site dates back to prehistoric times and was the location of a thirteenth century castle, which was occupied and rebuilt in various phases from then until the present day. The question was one of whether it is appropriate to roof a central area of the castle. Archaeological analysis suggested that the hall and associated buildings were constructed during a campaign of building between ca.

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As social spasms from dehydration cheap 60 caps shallaki mastercard, political spasms movie 1983 purchase shallaki with amex, and economic conditions change muscle relaxant 500 mg discount shallaki 60caps with amex, interest of the stakeholders waxes and wanes uterus spasms 38 weeks buy 60 caps shallaki, and research goals and strategies evolve, so too will the values that we attribute to sites. Values-based planning is an approach capable of being manipulated, or, for the faint of heart, of being turned into formulas or rules. It needs honesty, integrity, and dedicated practice, but the reward is a far more intellectually engaging process, yielding a deeper, broader, and more intimate understanding of what gives a site relevance and meaning to society. Given the focus of this workshop on conservation and management of archaeological sites, it is fitting to end this paper with a challenge to the archaeological and conservation professions. Almost thirty years ago, when William Lipe issued his prescient call for archaeologists to adopt a conservation ethic,2 both the archaeological and conservation professions were still too preoccupied and vested in excavation and technical interventions, respectively, to respond in an integrated way to the challenges facing archaeological sites. More recently, developments in archaeological theory (postprocessual archaeology) have called for archaeologists to become more engaged in the world beyond the academy, and to recognize other values, voices, and perspectives in the practice and interpretation of archaeology. Since the early 1980s the conservation profession has been moving in much the same direction in developing and advocating a values-based approach to the conservation and management of archaeological heritage. These two conceptual movements have thus far developed largely on parallel tracks, with very little convergence. And yet they have their essential starting point in common-the archaeological heritage-and much to gain from one another. At a time when the archaeological heritage is recognized as so necessary to our quest for a past, and yet is so threatened, it is hard to imagine a more natural and productive alliance among professions. See, however, Laurajane Smith, "Heritage Management as Postprocessual Archaeology At Yalo, a spirit cave in northwest Malakula, Vanuatu, the management plan and process were customized to reflect local requirements and conditions. The cave is of great archaeological significance in Vanuatu and a focal point in the life and ritual of the local indigenous people. The Management Plan is written in Kriol and English; for reasons of space we give the English text and Kriol/English headings. The plan explores the significance of the sites and presents a simple communitybased manage ment strategy that is being undertaken with and by the indigenous community. The project presented here is important because of its simplicity, its valuesbased manage ment process, and its control by stakeholders. Introduction this plan contains information about how the custodians of Yalo cave (Tenmiel Area, northwest Malakula), [Vanuatu] and the local community, would like this site to be looked after. It was designed by the chief of Wombrav (first chief of Tenmiel Area)-Chief Pita Dan Senembe; local Cultural Centre fieldworkers and staff; and foreign researchers. Social issues include, for example, who has access to the site, and physical issues include the actual physical changes that have taken place at the site over time, such as the growth of algae. Our aim has been to ensure that the plan remains flexible, such that should any new social or physical issues arise, they can be easily incorporated into the plan and taken account of. We began working Meredith Wilson, "Yalo Conservation and Management Plan," unpublished report (1999). Henry Walt (Konsulten Arkeolojis, Neu Meksiko, Amerika) Wok blong yumi-The work Wari (Concerns) Saes blong eria (Area) Lukaot long wanem (What to look after) Olsem wanem (How) Huia (Who) Histri (History) Mining (Meaning) Luk (Observe) Samting blong makem (Actions) the plan! The whole of north-west Malakula must recognise Chief Pita Dan as the owner of Yalo B.

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The series was developed to provide readers with a selection of the seminal texts that have contributed to the development of our understanding of the history muscle relaxant blood pressure shallaki 60 caps mastercard, theory spasms esophagus problems buy 60caps shallaki with mastercard, and practice of conservation yellow muscle relaxant 563 order shallaki without prescription. The first volume yorkie spasms cheap shallaki uk, Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, was published in 1996 and is now in its fourth printing. It was followed by Issues in the Conservation of Paintings in 2004, Issues in the Conservation of Photographs in 2010, and Changing Views of Textile Conservation in 2011. Our work has focused on site conservation and management, which includes documentation and recording; diagnostic research and assessment; the development, testing, and implementation of conservation treatments and strategies; and training and dissemination. It is therefore fitting that the newest book in our Readings in Conservation series should explore the history and development of archaeological site conservation and management. The readings in this volume, thoughtfully edited by Sharon Sullivan and Richard Mackay, range from classic texts to the most recent xi readings in conservation scholarship. We are extremely grateful to Sharon and Richard, who have both been exceptional colleagues and partners for many years. Their professionalism and dedication to this project have resulted in this important, comprehensive volume. Archaeological sites are among the oldest and most evocative evidence of our shared cultural heritage. We hope that the readings and commentary presented in Archaeological Sites: Conservation and Management will be of benefit to students as well as to professionals working to preserve these precious places. Whalen Director the Getty Conservation Institute xii Preface the process of archaeology is essentially destructive; excavation irrevocably changes the nature and context of the site and the excavated data, and the resulting exposure of fabric and artifacts can accelerate their deterioration and decay. By its very nature most archaeological investigation gives rise to an inherent conflict between the practice of archaeology, requirements for physical conservation of fabric, and, often, the cultural values other than archaeological ones that are associated with particular sites. Archaeologists may therefore be regarded as having an ethical responsibility to care for and conserve the sites they put at risk through excavation. Understanding the development of archaeological conservation as a discipline consequently involves considering a combination of historical antecedents and relatively recent contemporary practice. The Getty Conservation Institute Readings in Conservation series collects and publishes texts that have been influential in the development of thinking about the conservation of cultural heritage. The aim of the series is to provide an important resource for students and professionals in heritage conservation and allied fields. This volume in the series addresses key issues in the conservation and management of archaeological sites from both a historical and a contemporary perspective. We have chosen readings from a wide range of potential texts that we regard as contributing substantively to an understanding of the development of modern archaeological site conservation and management. The selected readings include texts that have proved seminal or that outline significant processes, issues, or methodologies with clarity, either through review and discussion or through the provision of a pertinent example. Choices have been made so as to offer a broad spectrum of site types, broad geographic coverage, and diversity in language and cultural context. In addition, individual texts have been assessed in relation to their philosophical and methodological content or specific techniques. It is hoped that this approach will increase xiii readings in conservation the appeal and application of the volume, even if it has been necessary to omit other well-known works discussing similar sites or covering exemplar controversies. The term archaeological site is commonly used in the literature to refer to a place (or locus) in which evidence of past human activity is preserved, encompassing elements or objects of cultural heritage value, and at which archaeology has played a role in the discovery, identification, and/or study of these cultural values. Archaeological sites range in scope and time from ancient human remains and subtle traces of early human occupation to spectacular rock art and the major iconic monuments of entire civilizations. They include industrial complexes, the remains of massive infrastructure, underwater sites, and places of conflict. The volume engages with this very broad spectrum of archaeological places, considering both individual sites and the archaeological resource itself. The term cultural heritage values is generally taken to mean the values of a site that make it worthy of conservation; in other words, the attributes that are seen as valuable by one or more cultural groups. The historical, aesthetic, and scientific values of archaeological sites have long been recognized, but more recently their social or spiritual values in a range of cultures have also received recognition. The extent to which a site possesses these values determines its cultural significance. Taking this definition as a starting point, the readings in this volume deal with a wide range of issues relevant to the conservation of archaeological sites. We include under the above definition of conservation what we have termed physical conservation-prevention of physical deterioration, in situ conservation of remains, conservation of excavated artifacts, and stabilization and/or repair of excavated features and related issues.

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A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency muscle relaxant parkinsons disease purchase 60caps shallaki visa. Law of armed conflict article 32 Prisoners of war who spasms while sleeping cheap shallaki 60caps, though not attached to the medical service of their armed forces spasms foot cheap shallaki 60caps without prescription, are physicians spasms after urinating order shallaki 60caps visa, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the Detaining Power to exercise their medical functions in the interests of prisoners of war dependent on the same Power. They shall, however, receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall also be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war. They shall also benefit by the following facilities in the exercise of their medical or spiritual functions: (a) They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners of war situated in working detachments or in hospitals outside the camp. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall place at their disposal the necessary means of transport. For this purpose, Parties to the conflict shall agree at the outbreak of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in Article 26 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949. Such authorities shall afford them all necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these questions. None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of its obligations with regard to prisoners of war from the medical or spiritual point of view. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means of transport provided for in Article 33, for visiting the prisoners of war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with international religious organizations. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detaining Power, shall take place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever necessary, with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise, including sports and games and for being out of doors. Such officer shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard and shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its application. Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces. Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank. Law of armed conflict article 40 the wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well as of decorations, shall be permitted. Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a language which they understand. Every order and command addressed to prisoners of war individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand. Titles and ranks which are subsequently created shall form the subject of similar communications. The Detaining Power shall recognize promotions in rank which have been accorded to prisoners of war and which have been duly notified by the Power on which these prisoners depend. Supervision of the mess by the officers themselves shall be facilitated in every way. Supervision of the mess by the prisoners themselves shall be facilitated in every way. Account shall always be taken of the climatic conditions to which the prisoners of war are accustomed and the conditions of transfer shall in no case be prejudicial to their health. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war during transfer with sufficient food and drinking water to keep them in good health, likewise with the necessary clothing, shelter and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take adequate precautions especially in case of transport by sea or by air, to ensure their safety during transfer, and shall draw up a complete list of all transferred prisoners before their departure. If the combat zone draws closer to a camp, the prisoners of war in the said camp shall not be transferred unless their transfer can be carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or if they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred. Such notifications shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin. The weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of transfer so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry, which shall in no case be more than twenty-five kilograms per head.

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