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As a result medicine 93 5298 order solian with amex, Latinx students may not want to bring up problems that are occurring on their campuses symptoms for pneumonia discount solian 50mg overnight delivery. High school and college counselors must work on creating a safe space for Latinx clients to feel comfortable to voice their concerns treatment 2 prostate cancer generic 50mg solian fast delivery. Fatalismo Fatalismo symptoms 9f diabetes order solian online now, also known as fatalism, refers to the belief some Latinx hold related to fate. Additionally, fatalismo is typically connected with 351 the Professional Counselor Volume 7, Issue 4 religious and spiritual views (Hovey & Morales, 2006; Sue & Sue, 2016). Positive and negative life events can be viewed as controlled by "divine will" (Hovey & Morales, 2006, p. When seeking counseling or mental health services, Latinx with fatalismo cultural values may seem to take a passive approach to problems or may not appear assertive in addressing the problem (Hovey & Morales, 2006; Sue & Sue, 2016). This does not mean the client does not want to address their presenting concern or problem. High school and college counselors will need to tailor their approaches for Latinx clients who hold this cultural belief. Even though there are within-group differences, Latinx college students can sometimes share common cultural values and educational experiences. However, the current literature on Latinx college students brings attention to the cultural incongruence this population experiences in higher education and the negative impact it has on their college persistence (Gloria & Rodriguez, 2000; Hurtado, 1994). They also face barriers in terms of cultural capital, socioeconomic status, and sociocultural experiences (Delgado Gaitan, 2013; Hurtado, Carter, & Spuler, 1996). The existing literature on Latinx college students identified the university environment, social support, and self-beliefs as factors that impacted the retention of Latinx college students (Cerezo & Chang, 2013; Gloria, Castellanos, Lopez, & Rosales, 2005; Hurtado et al. Many Latinx college students navigate higher education by balancing their cultural upbringing and the culture of college (Gloria & Rodriguez, 2000; Hurtado, 1994). Recent studies have supported that the cultural congruency of Latinx college students is positively associated with academic achievement and persistence (Cerezo & Chang, 2013; Edman & Brazil, 2009). Latinx students who experience a cultural fit with their university perceive fewer barriers to their education (Gloria, Castellanos, Scull, & Villegas, 2009). Furthermore, Latinx college students reported experiencing negative stereotypes, prejudices, marginalization, and microaggressions (Gonzales, Blanton, & Williams, 2002; Rodriguez, Guido-DiBrito, Torres, & Talbot, 2000; Valencia, 2002; Yosso et al. Microaggressions Victims of racial and gender microaggressions have identified these as one of the most direct forms of verbal and/or physical assault (Pierce, 1995; Storlie, Moreno, & Portman, 2014). Moreover, microaggressions are more pervasive and occur at a more frequent rate than many realize. While these preconscious or unconscious slights, insults, and degradations may seem harmless or subtle, 352 the Professional Counselor Volume 7, Issue 4 it is important to be aware that "the cumulative burden of a lifetime of microaggressions can theoretically contribute to diminished mortality, augmented morbidity, and flattened confidence" (Pierce, 1995, p. The researchers reported that the Latinx college students in the study experienced three types of microaggressions: (a) interpersonal microaggressions. The interpersonal microaggressions experienced by the participants included White professors allowing for flexibility in rules with White students but not Latinx students, and Latinx students feeling their professors had low expectations for them or were uncomfortable talking to them (Yosso et al. For some of the students, racial jokes reduced their sense of belonging and decreased their participation in campus activities (Yosso et al. In terms of institutional microaggressions, some students felt they were only visible to administrators during culturally related programs on their campuses, but at other times they were neglected by administrators (Yosso et al. Moreover, the microagressions experienced by the students led them to doubt "their academic merits and capabilities, demean their ethnic identity, and dismiss their cultural knowledge" (Yosso et al. These findings were similar to those identified in a content analysis of Latinx college student experiences conducted by Storlie et al. Historically, the literature on Latinx college students focused on the challenges they experienced in higher education (Delgado Gaitan, 2013; Hurtado et al. However, researchers also can learn from the cultural assets, strengths, and resiliency of Latinx students (Borrero, 2011). Morales (2008) noted that a "deeper understanding of achievement processes can be attained" by examining the experiences of successful Latinx students (p.
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In this more qualitative study of 179 front-page articles medicine 95a safe solian 50mg, the authors identified 11 protobacco frames and 10 tobacco control frames regularly used in press coverage illness and treatment order genuine solian online. In contrast with the Australian study symptoms 2 weeks after conception order solian 100mg with mastercard, Menashe and Siegel argued that the tobacco industry has been more successful than public health advocates in promoting a consistent treatment quinsy buy solian 100mg on line, powerful, and clear message through the press. By contrast, tobacco interest groups consistently emphasized the intrusion of tobacco control advocates into individual liberties and freedom of choice. The investigators argued that by having a tobacco control advocacy position that focused more on youth smoking-a frame that tobacco interest groups readily adopted-tobacco control advocates undermined the broader position that tobacco use is harmful to all. Clegg Smith and Wakefield analyzed newspaper editorial coverage on tobaccorelated issues from 30 U. Their descriptive analysis of 1,317 articles indicated a considerable fluctuation in the volume of news coverage of tobacco throughout the year. More favorable than unfavorable news stories were reported from a tobacco control perspective. Opinion coverage, less than 20% of overall coverage, tended to support tobacco control. The most prominent tobacco issue in the news during 2001 was secondhand smoke and smoking bans (17. The analysis of the focus and tone of editorials, columns, and letters to the editor also allowed the authors to identify issues that elicited opinionated coverage. Clegg Smith and colleagues60 used the same methods in a subsequent study59 to describe newspaper coverage of tobacco issues in the United States from 2001 to 2003. In a sample of 9,859 articles (approximately onethird of all articles published on tobacco) from the 100 leading daily newspapers, the majority of coverage reported on events that represented progress for tobacco control (55%), 23% reported on setbacks, and other coverage was mixed or neutral. Two-thirds of all articles were concerned with secondhand smoke and smoking bans (33%); economic issues (10%); education, prevention, and cessation efforts (10%); and the tobacco industry (9%). In opinion pieces such as editorials, columns, and letters to the editor, 56% expressed clear support for tobacco control objectives, while 26% expressed overt opposition. Long and colleagues61 studied news coverage of tobacco by daily newspapers, local and national television newscasts, and three national news magazines in the United States during 2002 and 2003. H o w the N e w s M e d i a I n f l u e n c e To b a c c o U s e the nationally representative sample was drawn from 56 days of news coverage and was stratified by day of week and season of the year. Of 335 newspaper articles, stories about government policy, law, and regulation applying to tobacco dominated coverage (between 44% and 58% of articles each year), and the negative health consequences of tobacco were the next most common (between 13% and 27% of articles each year). However, government action and negative health effects usually were not covered in the same article. Tobacco news coverage was placed fairly prominently in newspapers, with nearly 62% in the front section of the newspaper. Among newspaper articles mentioning government tobacco control, news and feature stories evenly reported opinions that expressed support (16%) or opposition (17%), while opinion articles were more likely to favor control efforts (55%) than to oppose them (29%). Finally, Long and colleagues found that newspaper coverage in the southeast, the main U. The sample of television coverage of tobacco issues found only 21 stories from 550 television news programs, averaging 0. The sampling period also identified 17 news magazine stories or about one story every four magazine issues. The allocation of television news coverage to tobacco-related topics was similar to that found in newspaper coverage. Magazines, however, tended to publish a relatively greater proportion of articles about health effects and were more likely to report about both government action and health effects in the same article. In 2007 Nelson and colleagues62 published the findings of a news surveillance system for tracking tobacco news stories in the United States from January 2004 to June 2005. Tobacco news stories were coded from 10 newspapers selected according to circulation estimates and geographic 338 diversity, 4 national news wire services, and 7 national broadcast or cable television networks. The number of newspaper and wire stories fluctuated over time, averaging 71 per month, meaning that a tobacco story was present virtually every day in these newspapers and newswires. Television news stories were less common, with an average of 29 tobacco stories per month. Three main tobacco themes accounted for more than 70% of newspaper coverage: policy or regulation (31%), legal news or lawsuits (24%), and health effects or statistics (16%). By contrast, 49% of television news stories concerned health effects or statistics, with policy or regulation stories (19%) a distant second.
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The F1 are intercrossed symptoms diagnosis buy 100mg solian otc, producing an ear of corn with 119 purple kernels and 89 yellow kernels (the progeny) medicine vial caps 100mg solian for sale. We now need to determine how a dihybrid cross can produce a 9: 7 ratio and what genotypes correspond to the We see that the expected numbers do not closely fit the observed numbers medicine pacifier order solian in india. If we performed a chi-square test (see Extensions and Modifications of Basic Principles 113 two phenotypes medicine in spanish generic solian 50 mg free shipping. The proportions of all the other genotypes (A bb, aa B, and aa bb) sum to 7/16, which is the proportion of the progeny in the corn cross that are yellow, and so any individual kernel that does not have a dominant allele at both the first and the second locus is yellow. Now test your understanding of epistasis by working Problem 26 at the end of the chapter. If, on the other hand, the mutations occur at different loci, each of the homozygous parents possesses wild-type genes at the other locus (aa b+b+ and a+a+ bb); so the heterozygous offspring inherit a mutant allele and a wild-type allele at each locus. In this case, the mutations complement each other and the heterozygous offspring have the wildtype phenotype: a a b+ b+ a+ a+ b b a a+ b+ b Wild-type phenotype Complementation: Determining Whether Mutations Are at the Same Locus or at Different Loci How do we know whether different mutations that affect a characteristic occur at the same locus (are allelic) or at different loci In fruit flies, for example, white is an X-linked recessive mutation that produces white eyes instead of the red eyes found in wild-type flies; apricot is an X-linked recessive mutation that produces light-orange-colored eyes. To carry out a complementation test on recessive mutations, parents that are homozygous for different mutations are crossed, producing offspring that are heterozygous. If the mutations are allelic (occur at the same locus), then the heterozygous offspring have only mutant alleles (a b) and exhibit a mutant phenotype: a a b b Complementation has occurred if an individual organism possessing two recessive mutations has a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the mutations are nonallelic genes. A lack of complementation occurs when two recessive mutations occur at the same locus, producing a mutant phenotype. When the complementation test is applied to white and apricot mutations, all of the heterozygous offspring have light-colored eyes, demonstrating that white eyes and apricot eyes are produced by mutations that occur at the same locus and are allelic. What types of crosses would you carry out to determine whether the brindle genes in bulldogs and in Chihuahuas are at the same locus The Complex Genetics of Coat Color in Dogs the genetics of coat color in dogs is an excellent example of how complex interactions between genes may take part in the determination of a phenotype. For thousands of years, people have been breeding dogs for particular traits, producing the large number of types that we see today. Each breed of dog carries a selection of genes from the ancestral dog gene pool; these genes define the features of a particular breed. The genome of the domestic dog was completely sequenced in 2004, greatly facilitating the study of canine genetics. The genetics of coat color in dogs is quite complex; many genes participate, and there are numerous interactions between genes at different loci. We will consider four loci (in the list that follows) that are important in producing many of the noticeable differences in color and pattern among breeds of dogs. In interpreting the genetic basis of differences in the coat color of dogs, consider how the expression of a particular gene is modified by the effects of other genes. Keep in mind that additional loci not listed here can modify the colors produced by these four loci and that not all geneticists agree on the genetics of color variation in some breeds. Hairs encoded by this allele have a "salt and pepper" appearance, produced by a band of yellow pigment on a black hair. Saddle markings (dark color on the back, with extensive tan markings on the head and legs). Bicolor (dark color over most of the body, with tan markings on the feet and eyebrows). Areas where the A locus is not expressed may appear as yellow, red, or tan, depending on the presence of particular genes at other loci. When As is present at the A locus, the four alleles at the E locus have the following effects: Em E ebr e Black mask with a tan coat.
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