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Al Qaeda also relied on outside travel facilitators heart attack telugu movie online discount generic telmisartan uk, including fraudulent document vendors blood pressure number meanings buy 80 mg telmisartan otc, corrupt officials arrhythmia loading purchase telmisartan uk, travel agencies prehypertension early pregnancy buy generic telmisartan from india, and smugglers, to help move operatives around the world by obtaining fraudulent documents, arranging visas (real or fake), making airline reservations, etc. On recycled passports, see Intelligence report, Collection of passports June 7, 2002. A detainee has admitted attending several security and specialized courses, including ones in counterfeiting and seal removal. Binalshibh apparently used some of this money to wire just over $10,000 to Shehhi in the United States and pay some of his own plot-related expenses. These meetings, and subsequent interviews of Bin Ladin family members in the United States, helped the U. The United States was not a primary source of al Qaeda funding, although some funds raised in the United States may have made their way to al Qaeda or its affiliated groups. By 9/11, al Qaeda was returning the favor, providing substantial financial support to the Taliban. We have found no evidence that Saudi Princess Haifa al Faisal provided any funds to the conspiracy, either directly or indirectly. In Saudi Arabia, zakat is broader and more pervasive than Western ideas of charity, in that it functions not only as charity but also as social welfare, educational assistance, foreign aid, a form of income tax, and a source of political influence. A hawala, at least in the "pure" form, transfers value without the use of a negotiable instrument or other commonly recognized method for the exchange of money. The ultimate recipient in Pakistan would then go to the Pakistani hawaladar and receive his money, in rupees, from whatever money the Pakistani hawaladar has on hand. As far as the sender and ultimate recipient are concerned, the transaction is then complete. The two hawaladars would have a variety of mechanisms to settle their debt, either through offsetting transactions. Hawalas typically do not have a large central control office for settling transactions, maintaining instead a loose association with other hawaladars to transfer value, generally without any formal or legally binding agreements. Moreover, because al Qaeda initially was living hand to mouth, there was no need to store funds. Although some reporting alleges that Bin Ladin may have been an investor, or even had an operational role, in drug trafficking before 9/11, this intelligence cannot be substantiated. No evidence indicates any such involvement in drug trafficking, and none of the detained al Qaeda operatives has indicated that this was a method of fund-raising. Highly publicized allegations of insider trading in advance of 9/11 generally rest on reports of unusual pre-9/11 trading activity in companies whose stock plummeted after the attacks. Some unusual trading did in fact occur, but each such trade proved to have an innocuous explanation. For example, the volume of put options- investments that pay off only when a stock drops in price-surged in the parent companies of United Airlines on September 6 and American Airlines on September 10-highly suspicious trading on its face. Yet, further investigation has revealed that the trading had no connection with 9/11. Similarly, much of the seemingly suspicious trading in American on September 10 was traced to a specific U. These investigators have found that the apparently suspicious consistently proved innocuous. The hijackers spent more than $270,000 in the United States, and the costs associated with Moussaoui were at least $50,000. The additional expenses included travel to obtain passports and visas, travel to the United States, expenses incurred by the plot leaders and facilitators, and the expenses incurred by the people selected to be hijackers who ultimately did not participate. For many of these expenses, we have only fragmentary evidence and/or unconfirmed detainee reports, and can make only a rough estimate of costs. The $400,000 to $500,000 estimate does not include the cost of running training camps in Afghanistan, where the hijackers were recruited and trained, or the marginal cost of the training itself. Our investigation has uncovered no evidence that the 9/11 conspirators employed hawala as a means to move the money that funded the operation. Indeed, the surviving plot participants have either not mentioned hawala or have explicitly denied using it to send money to the United States. As discussed in chapter 7, we have examined three transactions involving individuals in San Diego.
Agency users send information to the database and then can retrieve it from the database heart attack indigestion 80mg telmisartan fast delivery. Agencies would still have their own databases arteria pancreatica magna purchase 40mg telmisartan overnight delivery, but those databases would be searchable across agency lines heart attack 8 months pregnant telmisartan 40 mg with mastercard. In this system blood pressure 8040 trusted telmisartan 40mg, secrets are protected through the design of the network and an "information rights management" approach that controls access to the data, not access to the whole network. An outstanding conceptual framework for this kind of "trusted information network" has been developed by a task force of leading professionals in national security, information technology, and law assembled by the Markle Foundation. He should coordinate the resolution of the legal, policy, and technical issues across agencies to create a "trusted information network. Well-meaning agency officials are under tremendous pressure to update their systems. What does not are the rules for acquiring, accessing, sharing, and using the vast stores of public and private data that may be available. Therefore the sharing and uses of information must be guided by a set of practical policy guidelines that simultaneously empower and constrain officials, telling them clearly what is and is not permitted. What is needed now is a plan to accelerate these efforts, and public debate and consensus on the goals. So long as oversight is governed by current congressional rules and resolutions, we believe the American people will not get the security they want and need. Few things are more difficult to change in Washington than congressional committee jurisdiction and prerogatives. To a member, these assignments are almost as important as the map of his or her congressional district. The American people may have to insist that these changes occur, or they may well not happen. Having interviewed numerous members of Congress from both parties, as well as congressional staff members, we found that dissatisfaction with congressional oversight remains widespread. Not only does good intelligence win wars, but the best intelligence enables us to prevent them from happening altogether. Under the terms of existing rules and resolutions the House and Senate intelligence committees lack the power, influence, and sustained capability to meet this challenge. While few members of Congress have the broad knowledge of intelligence activities or the know-how about the technologies employed, all members need to feel assured that good oversight is happening. When their unfamiliarity with the subject is combined with the need to preserve security, a mandate emerges for substantial change. Either Congress should create a joint committee for intelligence, using the Joint Atomic Energy Committee as its model, or it should create House and Senate committees with combined authorizing and appropriations powers. Whichever of these two forms are chosen, the goal should be a structure- codified by resolution with powers expressly granted and carefully limited- allowing a relatively small group of members of Congress, given time and reason to master the subject and the agencies, to conduct oversight of the intelligence establishment and be clearly accountable for their work. The staff of this committee should be nonpartisan and work for the entire committee and not for individual members. The other reforms we have suggested-for a National Counterterrorism Center and a National Intelligence Director-will not work if congressional oversight does not change too. Unity of effort in executive management can be lost if it is fractured by divided congressional oversight. Recommendation: Congressional oversight for intelligence-and counterterrorism-is now dysfunctional. We have considered various alternatives: A joint committee on the old model of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy is one. A single committee in each house of Congress, combining authorizing and appropriating authorities, is another. The leaders of the Department of Homeland Security now appear before 88 committees and subcommittees of Congress. The one attempt to consolidate such committee authority, the House Select Committee on Homeland Security, may be eliminated. Congress needs to establish for the Department of Homeland Security the kind of clear authority and responsibility that exist to enable the Justice Department to deal with crime and the Defense Department to deal with threats to national security. Recommendation: Congress should create a single, principal point of oversight and review for homeland security. Congressional leaders are best able to judge what committee should have jurisdiction over this department and its duties.
But he argued that rolling attacks might persuade the Taliban to hand over Bin Ladin and prehypertension pregnancy buy telmisartan from india, in any case blood pressure chart 13 year old discount generic telmisartan canada, would show that the action in August was not a "oneoff " event hypertension 4019 diagnosis purchase telmisartan with american express. After the United States launched air attacks against Iraq at the end of 1998 and against Serbia in 1999 hypertension patho buy cheap telmisartan 80 mg on-line, in each case provoking worldwide criticism, Deputy National Security Advisor James Steinberg added the argument that attacks in Afghanistan offered "little benefit, lots of blowback against [a] bomb-happy U. According to Clarke, President Clinton was inclined to launch further strikes sooner rather than later. The experience of the previous week, he wrote, "has only confirmed the importance of defining a clearly articulated rationale for military action" that was effective as well as justified. But Slocombe worried that simply striking some of these available targets did not add up to an effective strategy. It urged the department to become a lead agency in driving a national counterterrorism strategy forward, to "champion a national effort to take up the gauntlet that international terrorists have thrown at our feet. Its lead author recalls being told by Holmes that Lodal thought it was too aggressive. Holmes cannot recall what was said, and Lodal cannot remember the episode or the paper at all. The United States had issued a formal warning to the Taliban, and also to Sudan, that they would be held directly responsible for any attacks on Americans, wherever they occurred, carried out by the Bin Ladin network as long as they continued to provide sanctuary to it. Both sides shouted at each other, with Mullah Omar denouncing the Saudi government. In his September 1998 meeting with Crown Prince Abdullah,Vice President Gore, while thanking the Saudi government for their responsiveness, renewed the request for direct U. The Saudis and the Bin Ladin family eventually helped in this particular effort and U. In the summer before the embassy bombings, the State Department had been heavily focused on rising tensions between India and Pakistan and did not aggressively challenge Pakistan on Afghanistan and Bin Ladin. Secretary Albright rejected the recommendation on August 5, 1998, just two days before the embassy bombings. According to Ambassador Milam, the bombings were a "wake-up call," and he soon found himself spending 45 to 50 percent of his time working the TalibanBin Ladin portfolio. Additional pressure on the Pakistanis-beyond demands to press theTaliban on Bin Ladin-seemed unattractive to most officials of the State Department. Congressional sanctions punishing Pakistan for possessing nuclear arms prevented the administration from offering incentives to Islamabad. Accepting this advice, President Clinton invited Sharif to Washington, where they talked mostly about India but also discussed Bin Ladin. After Sharif went home, the President called him and raised the Bin Ladin subject again. Bin Ladin was described as grabbing his beard and saying emotionally, "By Allah, by God, the Americans will still be amazed. Through every available channel, he repeated the earlier warning to the Taliban of the possible dire consequences-including military strikes-if Bin Ladin remained their guest and conducted additional attacks. Within the department, he argued for designating the Taliban regime a state sponsor of terrorism. This was technically difficult to do, for calling it a state would be tantamount to diplomatic recognition, which the United States had thus far withheld. He told us that he thought he was regarded in the department as "a one-note Johnny nutcase. It specified both carrots and hard-hitting sticks- among them, certifying Pakistan as uncooperative on terrorism. Albright said the original carrots and sticks listed in a decision paper for principals may not have been used as "described on paper" but added that they were used in other ways or in varying degrees. A limited war began between India and Pakistan, euphemistically called the "Kargil crisis," as India tried to drive the Pakistani forces out. The first, championed by Riedel and Assistant Secretary of State Karl Inderfurth, was to undertake a major diplomatic effort to end the Afghan civil war and install a national unity government. This dispute would go back and forth throughout 1999 and ultimately become entangled with debate about enlisting the Northern Alliance as an ally for covert action. Sheehan and Clarke prevailed in July 1999, when President Clinton issued an executive order effectively declaring the Taliban regime a state sponsor of terrorism. Clarke commented that Iraq and Libya had previously discussed hosting Bin Ladin, though he and his staff had their doubts that Bin Ladin would trust secular Arab dictators such as Saddam Hussein or Muammar Qadhafi. Clarke also raised the "remote possibility" of Yemen, which offered vast uncontrolled spaces.
He treated latent prints with colloidal gold blood pressure machine purchase 20mg telmisartan otc, attached a protein to the colloidal gold particles (already bound to latent print residue) arteria zarobki order discount telmisartan online, and amplified these with enzymes or stains that form colored or fluorescent products (Schnetz arrhythmia kidney disease cheap 20 mg telmisartan with mastercard, 1993) arrhythmia reference guide buy telmisartan cheap. Notice that the developed prints appear dark on light-colored surfaces and light on dark-colored surfaces. Other one-metal deposition methods for revealing latent prints on cartridge cases include the use of palladium (Migron and Mandler, 1997 pp 986992) and selenium (Bent, sen et al. Besides showing that palladium can reveal sebaceous prints on metal, Migron and Mandler did an extensive analytical study of how the deposition process works on brass surfaces containing sebaceous prints. The work by Bentsen and colleagues on the deposition of selenium is similar to what gun blueing does and is, therefore, discussed below, along with gun blueing. There are several manufacturers of gun blueing solutions, and no two solutions have exactly the same formulation, but all contain the three necessary active ingredients: selenious acid, a cupric salt, and an acid. An acidified solution of selenious acid is a relatively strong etching (oxidizing) reagent, as noted by the oxidation potential (Table 74): H2SeO3 + 4H+ + 4e Se + 3H2O E = +740 mV o 7. One is warned not to leave fingerprints on the barrel because the gun blueing solution will not work there (Angier, 1936, p 6). Thus was the birth of gun blueing solutions for visualizing latent prints on metal surfaces, particularly those of bullet cartridges. Gun blueing of metals involves the simultaneous deposition of two metals, selenium and copper, on a metal surface. As discussed previously for silver nitrate, the sebaceous print resists the deposition, and silver deposits (as a grayto-black metal) everywhere, except where the fingerprint exists. To be more precise about what is occurring, we should note that the deposition process is always accompanied by an etching process. For silver on copper, silver ions deposit (the deposition or reduction process) as cupric ions are removed (the etching or oxidation process). There Note that acid (H+) is needed, and this is why the blueing solution also contains an acid. Table 74 shows that an acidic solution of selenious acid can oxidize and etch copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and aluminum. A solution of cupric ions is also a strong etching (oxidizing) reagent capable of oxidizing lead, nickel, zinc, and aluminum. For example, on aluminum, the oxidation and reduction (etching and deposition) reaction is 3H2SeO3 + 12H+ + 4Al 3Se + 9H2O + 4Al3+ If overdevelopment occurs, then acidified hydrogen peroxide is recommended for removing excess gun blue deposit (Cantu et al. If we assume the copper selenium alloy is a 1:1 adduct, then the net reaction for its removal is 3H2O2 + 2H+ + CuSe H2SeO3 + Cu2+ + 3H2O Eoredox = 2402 mV 3Cu2+ + 2Al 3Cu + 2Al3+ E o redox = 2003. The final result is a blue-black metallic coating (everywhere except where a sebaceous latent print exists). Note that all involve selenious acid (one involves selenium dioxide, which is the anhydrous form of selenious acid), a cupric salt, and an acid. This deposits selenium metal on the metal being treated and this solution, along with the vacuum cyanoacrylate ester treatment, was rated highly among other methods tested. Leben and Ramotowski (1996, pp 8, 10) recommend a stronger solution (a 1:40 dilution) and indicate that an improvement over just using the diluted gun blueing reagent is to treat the metallic specimens first. After treatment, there is a tendency for the gun blueing solution to continue its deposition, and several arresting methods have been proposed (Cantu et al. These include dipping in a sodium bicarbonate solution, dipping in clear varnish (Bentsen et al. Etching without metal deposition can also reveal prints on metal surfaces by the contrast formed between the etched background and the unetched latent print. From Table 74 it can be seen that acid can displace iron, lead, nickel, zinc, and aluminum. They provide a lengthy discussion and explanation of why the etching process should be carefully watched: the metals that are etched out as ions can redeposit as the process continues. Sudan black B (herein referred to as Sudan black) was initially used in laboratories for biological testing or chemical screening for fatty components (Figure 724). Sudan black was initially reported for use as a friction ridge development technique in 1980 by Mitsui, Katho, Shimada, and Wakasugi of the Criminal Science Laboratory in Nagoya-shi, Japan (Mitsui et al. Kettner WaffenBrьnierung Used for Steel Steel Steel Steel Aluminum Steel Steel Steel Selenium Compounds Selenious Acid Selenium Dioxide Cupric Chloride 3 4 2 4 6 3 3 4 3 4 4 5 1 2 8 8 2 Cupric Salt Cupric Nitrate Cupric Sulfate Zinc Salt Nickel Salt Zinc Sulfate Nickel Sulfate Hydrochloric Nitric 3 2 4 4 4 4 Acid Phosphoric Fluoboric Amido sulfonic 8 3 2 12 Solution pH (dilution factor) Polyethylene Stearyl Ether Octylphenoxy Polyethoxyethanol Ammonium Molybdate Ammonium Bifluoride 2.
Einsatzgruppen of the Gestapo and S D were organized to follow the Army into Czechoslovakia to provide for the security of political life in the occupied territories heart attack move me stranger extended version purchase line telmisartan. These plans were considerably altered due to the cancellation of the attack on Czechoslovakia blood pressure ideal buy telmisartan overnight delivery, but in the military operations which actually occurred pulse pressure variation formula buy discount telmisartan 20mg on line, particularly in the war against U arteria aorta definicion effective 40mg telmisartan. Heydrich gave orders to fabricate incidents on the Polish-German frontier in 1939 which would give Hitler sufficient provocation to attack Poland. In some occupied terri- tories they helped local labor authorities to meet the quotas imposed by Sauckel. Gestapo offices inside of Germany were given surveillance over slave laborers and responsibility for apprehending those who were absent from their place of work. Although both Germzn and foreign workers could be committed to these camps, they played a significant role in forcing foreign laborers to work for the German war effort. Commissars, Jews, members of the intelligentsia, "fanatical Communists" and even those who were considered incurably sick were classified as "intolerable", and exterminated. The Defendant Kaltenbrunner, who was a member of this organization, was among those who used it for these purposes. At the suggestion of the Prosecution the Tribunal does not include persons employed by the Gestapo for purely clerical, stenographic, janitorial, or similar unofficial routine tasks. The basis for this finding is the participation of the organization in War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity connected with the war; this group declared criminal cannot include, therefore, persons who had ceased to hold the positions enumerated in the preceding paragraph prior to 1 September 1939. A t the end of the war it is estimated to have consisted of about 580,000 men and 40 divisions. During the war a n institute for military scientific research became attached to the Ahnenerbe which conducted extensive experiments involving the use of living human beings. Criminal Activities: S S units were active participants in the steps leading up to aggressive war. The ~ e r f i i ~ u n ~ s twas ~ ~ e r u used in the occupation of the Sudetenland, of Bohemia and Moravia, and of Memel. The Henlein Free Corps was under the jurisdiction of the Reichsfuhrer S S for operations in the Sudetenland in 1938, and the Volksdeutschemittelstelle financed fifth-column activities there. The Race and Settlement Office of the S S together with the Volksdeutschemittelstelle were active in carrying out schemes for Germanization of occupied territories according to the racial principles of the Nazi Party and were involved in the,deportation of Jews and other foreign nationals. These units were also involved in the widemread murder and ill-treatment of the civilian population of occupied territories. From 1934 onwards the S S was responsible for the guarding and administration of concentration camps. I n connection with the administration of the concentration camps, the S S embarked on a series of experiments on human beings which were performed on prisoners of war or concentration camp. It does appear that an attempt was made to keep secret some phases of its activities, but its criminal programs were so widespread, and involved slaughter on such a gigantic scale, that its criminal activities must have been widely known. Himmler had stated that there were people in Germany "who become sick when they see these black coats" and that he did not expect that "they should be loved by too many. This mystic and fanatical belief in the superiority of the Nordic German developed into the studied contempt and even hatred of other races which led to criminal activities of the type outlined above being considered as a matter of course if not a matter of pride. He encouraged his men to be "tough and ruthless", he spoke of shooting "thousands of leading Poles", and thanked them for their cooperation and lack of squeamishness at the sight of hundreds and thousands of corpses of their victims. He extolled ruthlessness in exterminating the Jewish race and later described this process as "delousing. Jews, brutalities and killings in concentration camps, excesses in the administration of occupied territories, the administration of the slave labor program and the mistreatment and murder of prisoners of war. The basis of this finding is the participation of the organization in War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity connected with the war; this group declared criminal cannot include, therefore, persons who had ceased to belong to the organizations enumerated in the preceding paragraph prior to 1 September 1939. Another veterans organization, the so-called Kyffhauserbund, was transferred in the same manner, together with a number of rural riding organizations. They took part in the beer hall feuds and were used for street fighting in battles against political opponents. It has not been shown, however, that these atrocities were part of a specific plan to wage aggressive war, and the Tribunal therefore cannot hold that these. The Tribunal is of opinion that no declaration of criminality should be made with respect to the Reich Cabinet for two reasons: (1) because it is not shown that after 1937 it ever really acted as a group or organization; (2) because the group of persons here charged is so small that members could be conveniently tried in proper cases without resort to a declaration that the Cabinet of which they were members was criminal.
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