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A thorough examination of land degradation drivers provides a critical first step toward an improved understanding of how we may successfully restore degraded lands and avoid further degradation in the future (see Chapters 6 and 8) symptoms diarrhea quality 300/200 mg truvada. Drivers of land degradation include all external factors that can act either directly or indirectly to symptoms retinal detachment purchase truvada from india result in declines in nature medicine hat buy truvada 300/200mg lowest price. Direct drivers have an unequivocal effect on the structure medicine zyprexa buy truvada 300/200 mg with visa, function and composition of ecosystems. Indirect drivers, on the other hand, are factors that underpin direct drivers of change (see Box 3. Indirect drivers operate more diffusely and are the forces that underlie and shape the extent, severity and combination of direct drivers that operate in a given place. Indirect drivers operate almost always in concert and across multiple scales and varying levels of proximity from the location in question, from the global (markets, commodity prices, consumption patterns), to the national and regional (demographic change, migration, domestic markets, national policies, governance, cultural and technological change) to the local (poverty, economic opportunities). This chapter begins with an overview of the different direct drivers of land degradation, followed by a thorough examination of each driver. Although natural direct drivers may result in land degradation, the chapter focuses primarily on direct anthropogenic drivers and examines the extent and severity of the direct drivers of land degradation across biomes and geopolitical boundaries, reports on how these drivers have changed over the last century and describes how direct drivers may interact either singly or in concert to accelerate the rate of land degradation. This full examination of direct drivers of land degradation sets the stage to understand linked degradation processes and the resulting changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning addressed in Chapter 4. Altering the nature, extent, and rate of change of direct degradation drivers in order to promote restoration of degraded lands occurs through indirect drivers. Indirect drivers, or human actions and decisions, provide the mechanism by which to avoid, reduce, and reverse land degradation. This includes indirect drivers that can be altered through interventions including changes to policies, governance and institutional structures, and markets, and connects to the discussion of policy responses in Chapters 6 and 8. Indirect drivers, specific to each direct driver, are assessed in the relevant section followed by an overarching assessment of the importance of indirect drivers at the end of the chapter. Anthropogenic direct drivers: Elements of direct drivers that are the result of human decisions and actions. Indirect drivers: Drivers that operate by altering the level or rate of change of one or more direct drivers. They are the underlying causes of environmental change that are often external to the ecosystem in question. They include institutions and governance systems and other indirect drivers and direct drivers (both natural and anthropogenic). Direct drivers: Drivers (both natural and anthropogenic) that affect nature directly (sometimes also called pressures). Natural direct drivers: Direct drivers that are not the result of human activities and are beyond human control. In some instances, land degradation can arise as a result of inherent natural processes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, hurricanes, typhoons and the periodic outbreaks of pests and pathogens. Such events are not necessarily the result of human-induced changes to ecosystems; they occur episodically with periodicities ranging from years to millennia, and can result in land degradation and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services. However, it is important to recognize that in some cases, these same events can be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, as in the case of landslides that result from road building or clear felling, or pest and pathogen outbreaks that arise following their introductions to new habitats by humans. The impacts of many natural drivers are also exacerbated by the effects of human-induced climate change (see Section 3. The most widespread drivers of land degradation globally are those that are directly linked to human activities (Table 3. The spatial scales over which different direct anthropogenic drivers are manifested ranges from local. The outcomes of different drivers for changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services are similarly varied with multiple interacting drivers often involved in shaping a particular outcome. A single driver can influence multiple degradation or restoration processes, while at the same time multiple interacting drivers can influence the same process (Table 3. Subcategories of indirect driver Indirect drivers Demographic Economic Science, knowledge and technology Institutions and governance Population growth rate; migration and population mobility (including to urban centers); density; age structure Demand and consumption; poverty; commercialization and trade; urbanization; industrialization; labour markets; prices; finance Education; indigenous and local knowledge; taboos; research and development investments; access to technology; innovation; communication and outreach Public policy (regulatory and incentive based); property rights; customary law; certification; international agreements and conventions (trade, environment and so on); competencies of formal institutions; informal institutions (social capital) Worldviews; values; religion; consumer behaviour; diet Cultural 3. Each type of direct driver encompasses a range of specific human-related activities which, in turn, relate to a range of different land degradation and restoration processes (Table 3. The impact of direct anthropogenic drivers is felt through their spatial extent, changes in extent over time, and the particular ways in which the driver is manifest in a given locality.
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If new information is found which results in an expanded range of habitats used by the subspecies medicine omeprazole cheap 300/200 mg truvada free shipping, or a decreased level of threats symptoms 3 months pregnant order truvada 300/200mg, we will consider that information in the final rule symptoms 2015 flu purchase truvada 300/200 mg mastercard. Proposed Determination for the Streaked Horned Lark the streaked horned lark has disappeared from all formerly documented locations in the northern portions of its range (British Columbia symptoms 39 weeks pregnant best buy truvada, the San Juan Islands, and the northern Puget trough), the Oregon coast, and the southern edge of its range (Rogue and Umpqua Valleys). There are currently estimated to be fewer than 1,600 streaked horned larks rangewide. Recent research estimates that the number of streaked horned larks in Washington and on the Columbia River islands is declining. In Washington the species was once known from seven Puget Sound counties, and is now known to occur naturally in just two counties, Clallam and Pierce. Only 1 population consistently has more than 1,000 individual butterflies, and this population has been severely impacted due to habitat impacts from military training. In winter, most of the subspecies congregates in the Willamette Valley, putting it at risk of stochastic events in bad weather years. The range of the streaked horned lark is small and shrinking; the magnitude of threats is not uniform throughout the range since they appear to be concentrated in Washington based on the more severe population level effects observed there, but weighing the small overall population size there against the relatively larger and stable populations in Oregon, we conclude the subspecies as a whole is not in danger of extinction now, but is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial information available regarding past, present, and future threats to the streaked horned lark. Threats exist throughout the range of the subspecies, population numbers are declining, and there are few regulatory protections in place that could reduce the threats to the subspecies. Based on the threats to the subspecies throughout its range, we have determined the streaked horned lark meets the definition of a threatened species in accordance with sections 3(20) and 4(a)(1) of the Act. Our policy further recognizes it may be appropriate to assign different classifications. Quantitative measures of genetic or morphological discontinuity (separation based on genetic or morphological characters) may provide evidence of this separation; (2) It is delimited by international governmental boundaries within which differences in control of exploitation, management of habitat, conservation status, or regulatory mechanisms exist that are significant in light of section 4(a)(1)(D) of the Act. Observation of banded streaked horned larks has shown that the birds show strong site philopatry in the breeding season. Streaked horned larks spend the winter in large mixed subspecies flocks of horned larks in the Willamette Valley, and in smaller flocks along the lower Columbia River and Washington Coast (Pearson et al. Estimates of population growth rate with data from nesting areas in Washington (south Puget Sound, Washington Coast, and one lower Columbia River island) indicate that the number of streaked horned larks in Washington is declining each year, apparently due to a combination of low survival and fecundity rates (Pearson et al. The combination of low genetic variability, small and rapidly declining nesting populations, high breeding site fidelity, and no observed migration into the south Puget Sound suggests that the streaked horned lark in the south Puget Sound could become extirpated in the near future (Pearson et al. Efforts to reduce this apparent isolation and concomitant genetic consequences have been implemented within the last year. A project was initiated in 2011 to counteract the apparent decline in the south Puget Sound breeding birds. This genetic rescue effort is aimed at increasing genetic diversity in the streaked horned larks breeding in Washington, which could result in increased nest success and an increase in the population. Twelve eggs (four three-egg clutches) were collected from streaked horned lark nests in the southern Willamette Valley and were placed in nests at the 13th Division Prairie site at Joint Base Lewis-McChord (Wolf 2011, p. At least five young successfully fledged at the receiving site; if even one of these birds returns to breed in future years, it will likely increase genetic diversity in the receiving population, resulting in improved fitness and reduced extinction risk for the south Puget Sound larks (Wolf 2011, p. In the course of this rangewide determination, we considered whether some portion of the full range of the subspecies may face threats or potential threats acting individually or collectively on the streaked horned lark to such degree that the subspecies as a whole should be considered endangered. Although the threats to streaked horned larks in Washington and Oregon are apparently similar in nature (including loss of habitat to development, poor habitat quality due to lack of adequate management to maintain low-stature vegetation, predation, and human disturbance during the breeding season), for reasons unknown, the population trend for streaked horned larks in Washington appears to be markedly different than the trend for the subspecies in Oregon. Streaked horned larks in Washington occur on the south Puget Sound, the Washington coast, and on islands and dredge disposal sites in the lower Columbia River (including two sites in Portland, Oregon). Demographic modeling using data from these sites uniformly show precipitous population declines. The declining trend is probably most pronounced in the south Puget Sound population, where studies have identified apparent inbreeding depression, which is likely a result of the small population size, high site fidelity, and complete absence of breeding season immigration. The population of streaked horned larks in the Willamette Valley of Oregon appears to be more stable.
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